Diabetes in Your Pet

This entry is article 3 of 5 in the November 2014 issue

What is diabetes?

In veterinary medicine, there are two types of diabetes mellitus: Type I DM and Type II DM. Type I occurs when the body doesn’t make enough insulin, a hormone that is produced by the pancreas. This form of diabetes requires lifelong insulin injections. In Type II DM, the body does not use insulin properly, a condition referred to as insulin resistance. Initially, the pancreas makes extra insulin to make up for this; however, over time it is not able to keep up and make enough insulin to maintain normal blood glucose levels. This form of diabetes also requires insulin injections and monitoring of blood glucose levels. The good news is that both types of diabetes are manageable and, if detected early, pets with diabetes can live a normal life.

Are there certain dogs or cat that are more susceptible?

  • Type I DM is most commonly seen in dogs; more typically dogs 7-9 years of age.
  • Female dogs seem to be more likely to develop diabetes.
  • Some breeds of dogs may run a greater risk, including Australian Terriers, Schnauzers, Samoyeds, Fox Terriers, Keeshonds, Bichon Frises, Finnish Spitz, Cairn Terriers, and Poodles.
  • Type II DM is the more common form of diabetes seen in cats; more typically seen in older cats, 8-13 years of age.
  • Male cats and breeds such as Burmese are over-represented.

Treatment

Treatment for diabetes differs between dogs and cats. For dogs, treatment requires twice a day injections of insulin and careful blood work monitoring. For cats, weight control in overweight cats is a big part of managing cats with diabetes, but like dogs they also benefit from insulin therapy. While some cats may go into a state of remission for a period of time and not require insulin, many of these cats often will later relapse as their disease progresses. Nutritional management in both dogs and cats is helpful in maintaining steady blood sugar levels.

Signs of Diabetes

The signs of diabetes can develop very gradually, but signs to be aware of include:

  • Increased thirst (pet may be emptying his water dish more frequently)
  • Excessive urination, urinating outside the litterbox or inappropriate urination Weight loss
  • Increased appetite
  • Blindness (seen primarily in dogs, but cats can also develop blindness from diabetic cataracts)
  • Tiredness and lack of energy
  • Urinary tract infections
  • Weakness in rear limbs (cats only)
  • Weight loss

If your pet is exhibiting any of these common signs, we encourage you to seek advice from your veterinarian as soon as possible. Your veterinarian is your resource on diabetes and can provide you with appropriate preventive tips and help in the management of the disease if your pet is diagnosed with diabetes. With the support of your primary care veterinarian, the prognosis is positive. The sooner it is diagnosed, the sooner you can begin treatment and get your pet on the road to an active and healthy life.

Holidays are Around the Corner: Watching Your Pet’s Waistline

This entry is article 2 of 5 in the November 2014 issue

Pet obesity is a growing health concern. Overweight cats have an increased risk of diabetes, liver problems and joint problems. Similarly, obese dogs are prone to diabetes, develop more orthopedic problems and arthritis. They may also develop respiratory distress and are more susceptible to heat stroke.

Keep these things in mind to prevent your pet’s waistline from expanding and to keep your pet safe:

  • Maintain a routine. Keep to a schedule of several small meals a day and make sure you are feeding your pet from a pet bowl or dish. It may be helpful to have a check off list to ensure a pet is not fed twice.
  • Provide opportunities for physical activity. While the days are getting cooler and the weather not always cooperating, taking a longer walk or more frequent walks with your dog can benefit both of you. For cat owners, encourage activity by getting him/her to run and play. Toys that encourage your cat to chase are helpful or include stairs in your pet’s playtime by getting the cat to run up and down the stairs. Whatever you choose, HAVE FUN!
  • Watch the snacks and treats. Take note of the number of calories and the nutritional content in your pet’s treats. Think about whether that single dog cookie, decorated like a reindeer or the cat treat decorated like a mouse, is worth the extra calories. Too many treats, especially high-calorie treats, can result in your pet gaining extra weight during the holidays.
  • Follow this simple rule: “Humans get human food and pets get pet food.” This can often be difficult when you have friends or family visiting. When they see a cute little face begging for food, it’s hard to resist. Remind your guests not to feed your pet and if they want to, provide them with some appropriate pet treats to share. The one exception is vegetables: celery, zucchini, carrots, and green beans can make great low calorie snacks as an alternative to fatty meats or dangerous bones.
  • Watch the crumbs. Pay attention to any foods that may “accidently” fall into your pets feeding area. Keep your pets away from the table and be conscious of where you’re leaving unattended plates of food, and remember to secure the trash.
  • Some foods can be dangerous.
    • Turkey and other bones can cause intestinal blockages and other problems for your pet’s digestive system.
    • Fatty, spicy and other rich foods can cause indigestion, sickness and diarrhea – and more serious conditions from gastroenteritis to pancreatitis
    • Onions or other alliums (i.e., garlic, leeks, scallions), in small quantities may be alright, but larger quantities can lead to toxic anemia. Be careful of turkey stuffing, which often contains onions.
    • Remember the risks of feeding your pets chocolate or anything sweetened with sugar substitute, xylitol.
    • If you pet does ingest anything toxic, call your veterinarian or poison control immediately.

We all want healthy companion pets. By following these simple tips, you’ll be assured that you are doing everything possible to help your pet during a time that is just as tempting for them as it is for you.

Quick Action and Teamwork Lead to Happy Ending

This entry is article 5 of 5 in the November 2014 issue

oliver6

Background

When Oliver, a 4-1/2-month-old golden retriever puppy arrived at Foster Hospital for Small Animals at Cummings School of Veterinary Medical Center at Tufts University, he had been vomiting for two days after breaking into the trash can. “You could tell he wanted to lie down, but couldn’t; he was stretching out his neck looking very uncomfortable,” owner Carrie Alward recalled. She knew something was not right and brought Oliver to a local emergency clinic. The x-ray was inconclusive, but they suspected he had acquired a gastrointestinal infection, and sent Oliver home that evening. After 36 hours with no improvement, Carrie brought him to Foster Hospital in search of a second medical opinion and was hopeful that specialists from Tufts would collaborate to diagnose and ultimately treat her Oliver. Emergency room veterinarian, Dr. Tiffany Jagodich was immediately concerned with the seriousness of Oliver’s illness. She started him on intravenous fluids and medications (pain relief, antacids, and anti-vomiting medications) and transitioned him to the ICU for ongoing treatment and further diagnostic tests, where he was placed in the care of Dr. Scott Taylor.

“Oliver was in extreme pain and unable to rest, remaining standing in a hunched position. He was one very sad puppy,” recalls Dr. Taylor. Standard imaging techniques, including x-rays and ultrasound were again inconclusive. Foster Hospital’s ICU staff, however, recommended and discussed additional diagnostic options with Carrie Alward. Ultimately, the doctors and Alward family decided to pursue a CT scan for Oliver, which would require anesthesia. This more advanced diagnostic test revealed a bamboo skewer (teriyaki stick) vertically piercing from Oliver’s stomach through his esophagus and into the muscles under his spine. It’s no wonder that Oliver was so uncomfortable. Carrie received a call from Dr. Taylor who described the dire situation — one that would require surgery. Although the doctors were hopeful that they could successfully remove the skewer and repair the internal damage that it had done, the Alward family was also prepared for the worst.

Oliver’s case is a true testament to the teamwork and collaboration that happen every day at Foster Hospital for Small Animals. Drs. John Berg and Harpreet Singh, soft tissue surgery specialists, in conjunction with radiologists Drs. Dominique Pennink, Trisha Oura and Josh Hobbs, and board-certified anesthesiologist Dr. Lois Wetmore were consulted by the ICU team to discuss the best approach and management for this very precarious injury. In the end, it was the collaboration and joint care of the entire team of veterinary specialists under one roof that would ultimately save Oliver’s life.

Multiple procedures were required — first abdominal surgery, followed by thoracic surgery and then incision repair to both his stomach and esophagus. A portion of his lung was also removed and a specialized feeding tube placed in his stomach to bypass the esophagus during his recovery. This was a very complicated procedure, one that required the skilled expertise of veterinary specialists with advanced training in surgery and anesthesia. . In spite of the potential risk of complications, Oliver had an excellent recovery while being intensively managed by Dr. Kristina DePaula during this ICU stay. Nutritionist Dr. Lily Johnson was also consulted during the recovery period to ensure Oliver’s nutrient requirements were met.

Oliver was discharged on a Sunday, four days after his surgery, and continued to receive stomach tube feedings. When the tube was removed 15 days later, Dr. Johnson instructed Carrie on how to transition to regular feedings and the best foods to provide a growing puppy. This was not Carrie’s first encounter with Foster Hospital. The team had previously cared for another of Carrie’s doggie’s, who had suffered with bone cancer and she speaks of how wonderful they were then. This time was no different. “The Tufts team of doctors and staff held my hand through the entire process. Dr. Depaula, in particular, was there for me and for Oliver, explaining everything so that I understood exactly what to expect” recalled Carrie. “It’s frustrating that they didn’t do more thorough diagnostic testing when I brought Oliver to the local emergency clinic for the initial evaluation,” said Carrie, disappointed that she hadn’t first taken him to Tufts.

Not only does she sing the praises of the Foster Hospital’s team of veterinarians and staff who provided such compassionate care for her sweet Oliver and saved his life, but she will also shout from the rooftops the importance of keeping barbecue skewers out of the trash. Now two months later, “Oliver is thriving, growing and doing everything he should be doing…just like his brothers and sisters are,” according to Carrie.

Foster Spotlight: Christy Pease

This entry is article 4 of 5 in the November 2014 issue

Pick 004 bbCHRISTY PEASE
Animal Care Attendant

What inspires you most about your job?
What inspires me the most is the people—the faculty, staff, and students—who show up every day with their endless amount of compassion and genuine, heartfelt concern for both our clients and their pets.

What surprised you most when you started in this field?
What surprised me then, and still does, is the magnitude of love and devotion so many people have for their pets. Some these animals are loved as deeply as one would love a child. The bond between pets and their owners is one of profound and deep significance. It’s good to know I’m not alone.

Your profession is all about helping others. Tell us about your most memorable story about helping a pet at Foster Hospital.
The most amazing and memorable stories are those that I can share of our clients helping each other. It could be as simple as offering a sweater, a cup of coffee, use of a cell phone, a hug or some kind words. I have even seen perfect strangers offer financial assistance and a place to stay while their pet is undergoing long treatments. Some of these clients have stayed connected long after their chance meeting at Tufts to check on each other’s progress or to provide comfort after a devastating loss. It’s a remarkable display of true empathy in its purest form.

What is your favorite part about working at Foster? What aspect of your role do you enjoy the most?
I can’t name any one particular aspect of my work over another to call my favorite. It all boils down to one fabulous role. I brought up my children telling them, “Do what you love, and you will never work a day in your life.” Foster Hospital is a revolving door of fascinating and interesting people from all over the world—each individual equipped with wonderfully unique stories and experiences, all of which contribute to my coming to a job that I love. 4. What advice do you have for vet students? Treat not only your patient, but also their owner, with great awareness. Look at the WHOLE picture. Take care of yourself, and get as much sleep as you can. It’s ok to cry. As a matter of fact, if you don’t, you’re in the wrong business.

Do you have a pet? Tell us a little about the pet.
I have had many pets – each one with its own unique story. ‘Russell,’ a Shih Tzu, was one of only two dogs I have ever purchased. Russell is a 9 years old Shih Tzu. He is extremely sociable. He just loves everyone. He’s the kind of dog that will just plow through a crowd to greet the newcomer. He’s the welcome wagon of the house. The most astonishing attribute of Russell is his ability to connect with us and understand. We were on a walk one day and he was off leash. We were walking in an area of open fields. He had run quite a ways up in front of me so he was pretty far away. He stopped and turned to see where I was. I waved at him. He wagged his tail. Yup. He understands everything.

Caring For Your Diabetic Cat

This entry is article 1 of 5 in the November 2014 issue

Treatment Regimen

Your cat’s treatment regimen will include: medications to reduce its blood sugar level, dietary adjustments and exercise. Beyond these items, it will be very important that you establish an ongoing relationship with your primary care veterinarian, who will serve as a resource and expert on how you can best care for your feline pet.

Administering the Insulin

Controlling your cat’s diabetes will first require that a long-acting insulin be injected twice a day. The frequency and dose is determined on an individual basis. Your veterinarian will determine the dose and often initially administer it at his/her practice. It will then be important that you fine tune the dose over time, working closely with your veterinarian as you monitor your cat at home.

Your veterinarian or his/her technician can demonstrate how the injections should be given. There are also a lot of online resources that can guide you. Follow these tips for properly administering the insulin injection:

  • You should always give the injection shortly after your cat eats and at the same time (AM and PM), every twelve hours.
  • Do not reuse syringes
  • Be sure you are using the syringes that came with the insulin product you are administering.
  • Alternate injection sites (e.g., inject on the right in the morning and left side in the afternoon)
  • Use petting, treats and praise to establish a trust with your cat

Monitoring your Diabetic Cat

The blood sugar level of some cats is harder to control than others and monitoring your diabetic cat is a key element of caring for your diabetic cat. This should be a collaborative effort between you and your veterinarian. Serial blood sugar curves performed at your veterinarian’s office enable the effect of insulin to be determined and dose adjustments made as necessary. Periodic blood fructosamine assays may also assist with regulation. Some cat owners are willing to take on the task of home blood glucose monitoring with a glucometer, but this requires you to regularly prick your pet’s paw or ear to get a blood sample. Your veterinarian can discuss with you whether this is appropriate for you and your cat.

Changes in dose are usually done by your veterinarian, and we recommend that you evaluate the change by checking blood sugars 3 to 7 days later and always before making further changes to dose.

Monitor your cat on a daily basis as to his/her appetite, weight, water consumption and urine output. Any significant variation in these things can be a sign that the diabetes is unregulated and veterinary care is needed. Be sure to keep your veterinarian informed of changes that you observe.

Some cats that are diagnosed early and respond well to treatment, can go into remission. This means that their diabetes resolves, and their pancreas recovers enough function for them to come off insulin shots. It occurs in 10-25% of cats, generally new diabetics; however the remission is often temporary and the diabetes can recur. Remission can be a reason some cats become hypoglycemic, where if they continue to receive insulin after they have achieved remission, they are at risk of insulin overdose.

Diet

In conjunction with the insulin, another key element of the treatment regimen is diet modification. If your cat is overweight, a program that is aimed at gradual weight loss should be employed. Two dietary approaches are commonly used in overweight and healthy weight diabetic cats. High fiber, lower calorie diets can be beneficial in two ways: weight loss and delayed absorption of glucose from the intestine. Another approach is to use low carbohydrate, high protein diets, but the caloric intake must be monitored because some of these diets are often high in calories. Canned food can be beneficial in preventing dehydration. Some patients may require special therapeutic (veterinary only) diets. Work closely with your primary care veterinarian to determine the best dietary program for your diabetic cat.

Exercise

Because many diabetic cats are overweight, an intensive exercise program is not something you want to engage in without consulting your veterinarian. Your veterinarian can help you develop a basic exercise program that will build over time. Take 5-10 minutes several times a day to get your cat moving and active. For example, play with a string or a cat toy, play with a small ball or do things to get him/her to move around the house. You can place the daily meals around the house or use a food-dispensing interactive toy if your pet is food motivated. You can also move the litter box further away so that your cat will have to spend more time walking. Keep the exercise consistent as too much variation will disrupt the effectiveness of the insulin you are administering.

Caring for your diabetic cat will require some education and patience. Like with any chronic illness, it will be important to maintain ongoing communication with your primary veterinarian. Just as important…take the time to understand what you need to do to maintain the health and welfare of your feline companion.

Have a ‘Howling” Night with these Halloween Pet Safety Tips

This entry is article 3 of 6 in the September 2014 issue

Learn how to give your pets a safe and stress-free Halloween night with our helpful tips.

Candy
A simple rule of thumb here is “no candy.” It’s a well-known fact that chocolate is toxic to dogs, but candies that contain the “sugar-free” sweetener xylitol are also poisonous in dogs and possibly ferrets. Candy wrappers and lollipop sticks can also present a threat. Also, keep in mind that mini-boxes of raisins that are distributed as healthy snacks to people are extremely poisonous to dogs and should be treated just as you would the chocolate.

Keep Pets Confined and Away from the Door
The constant ringing of the doorbell can be stressful for your pets. Add to that the strangers dressed in costumes yelling “Trick or Treat,” and it can prove to be frightening. Keep your dog or cat in a secure place away from the front door. This is particularly important for dogs who are guarded with strangers or who may have a tendency to bite. Even dogs who are typically friendly may become anxious or unfriendly. This will also prevent them from escaping into the night.

Keep Pets Indoors
For their protection, cats, especially black cats, should be kept indoors at all times. Animals can often be at risk for cruel antics by Halloween pranksters.

Glow Sticks and Glow Jewelry
Cats, in particular, like to chew on these. While not toxic, they do have a liquid inside that can cause irritation to the mouth and excessive salivation and drooling.

Candles and Jack-O-Lanterns
Keep lit candles and jack-o-lanterns out of reach. Tails wagging and pets running around the house can accidentally tip over a candle or carved pumpkin, creating a fire hazard.

Pet Safety Clothing
While getting in the Halloween spirit consider reflective collars and gear for not only you and your children, but also your pets. This is a great safety item for Halloween and throughout the year (e.g., when walking your dog at night).

IDs Required
Make sure your pet is properly identified with a collar, ID tag or microchip in case he/she escapes while you’re attending to the trick -or- treaters.

Pet Costumes
Don’t dress your pet in costume unless you know they’ll be comfortable. They may look cute all dressed up, but they may not enjoy it as much as you and the kids. If you dress your pet in a costume, be sure it doesn’t restrict movement, eyesight or breathing. Your safest bet may be a loosely tied, colorful bandana. Also, don’t be tempted to color your pet’s fur. It may be labeled non-toxic to humans, but it could still be harmful to pets.

You, your children and your pets will be guaranteed a “howling” night this Halloween by taking a little caution and care with these simple tips.

Risks to your Pet This Fall

This entry is article 2 of 6 in the September 2014 issue

The cool, crisp morning air, the beautiful autumn foliage and a shift from the hot temps of summer days are all signs that fall is around the corner. While both you and your pet may be jumping for joy to finally take a break from the hot and humid weather of summer, the coming season may present some potential health dangers for your pets. From household poisons to hazards in the yard and holiday-specific threats, take note of the following things that might pose a risk to your furry friends in the months ahead.

Shorter Days Means Less Daylight
With the shortened days, it’s very likely that you’ll be walking your dog in the dark. This makes it very difficult for drivers to see you and your pet. So, take precautions and stay safe! Hold on tight and keep your pet in close proximity by using a leash and collar or chest harness. Also use reflective gear, flashlights, or light-up collars.

Leaves
Whether it’s the noise of the leaf blower, a blower that is leaking toxic fuel, or the leaf piles that are breeding grounds for bacteria and mold growth, the falling foliage can wreak havoc on your pets. Ticks are also hiding in the piles of leaves. The best place for your pet when you are involved in leaf clean-up is indoors.

Plants
“Mums,” a popular fall bloomer is toxic if your dog or cat ingests the flower, stems or leaves. Other potentially toxic plants for your cats and dogs are meadow saffron/autumn crocus and some holiday plants, including holly amaryllis, mistletoe, poinsettia and Christmas and Thanksgiving cactus.

Mushrooms
Most wild-growing mushrooms are non-toxic for our companion animals. However, it is difficult to distinguish a toxic from a non-toxic mushroom. Watch out for mushrooms where you walk your dog or where they play and keep your pets away from areas where mushrooms are growing.

Compost Pile
Composting has many benefits, but make sure you do so with your pets in mind. Compost that contains dairy, grains, nuts and legumes can become moldy and produce mycotoxins that, if ingested, can have neurological effects on your pet. You may want to avoid composting certain foods, but other steps you can take include covering or using a closed container and simply keeping your dog or other pets out of the pile.

Rodenticides
During the fall months, mice and rats seek warmer surroundings indoors and homeowners turn to rodenticides to help prevent a rodent infestation. These poisonous substances contain anticoagulants, cholecalciferol, bromethalin and phosphides, which can be fatal to your dog or cat. If you have to use these products, use caution and be sure to store in out of reach places.

Coolant/Antifreeze
Do you change your own automotive antifreeze? If so, take note that the sweet taste of ethylene glycol in some antifreeze products attracts pets and even small amounts can poison a cat or dog and be fatal. If you do change your antifreeze, consider using propylene glycol-based coolants. While they are not 100% non-toxic, they are safer than those containing ethylene glycol.

Back to School Supplies
With fall comes back-to-school and time to stock up on things like pencils, magic markers and glue sticks. While not toxic, if ingested, they have the potential to cause gastrointestinal problems and blockages are possible. Keep these school supplies off the floor and out of your pet’s reach.

Holiday Decorations
Holiday decorations can be dangerous to your pets. Keep the ornaments, tinsel, plants, Halloween costumes, candles, etc. all out of reach from your pet’s paws.

Fall is a spectacular time of year and the perfect weather to get outside with your pet. However, we hope by providing this information that you are reminded of these safety hazards to keep your pet healthy and happy in the coming months.

Routine Eye Care for Your Pets

This entry is article 6 of 6 in the September 2014 issue

As a pet owner, it’s important that you establish an eye care routine to include the following:

Conduct Routine Visual Inspection
Set aside a particular time weekly to examine your pet’s eyes. Do so in the best of light. Healthy eyes should look clear, shiny and moist, and the area around the clear part of the eye (i.e., cornea) should be white, pupils should be equal in size and there should be no redness, crusting, discharge, swelling or tearing around the eyes. With your thumb, the lower lid can be rolled down to check the color of the conjunctiva (i.e., tissue lining its inner aspect) or to look for other problems. The conjunctiva should be pink. Do not hesitate to contact your veterinarian if you think that something looks unusual. If you have an older pet, you may find that the eyes have an opaque, cloudy look. This can be typical of aging, but it may be caused by cataracts. Prompt attention when any abnormalities are found can mean the difference between a quick and easy fix vs. a sight-threatening problem.

Remove Dirt and Debris
After you’ve examined your pet’s eyes, spend a few minutes cleaning them. This will reduce the accumulation of debris and be soothing. You can remove dirt or other debris surrounding the eye with a dampened cotton ball or sterile eye wipe. Wipe from the outside corner to the inside corner of the eyelids and be careful to keep the cotton off the eyeball. Tear staining can occur in both dogs and cats when tears spill out at the corners of the eyes and settle on the surrounding hair, causing discoloration. A good cleaning can usually help with the staining but doesn’t eliminate it completely.

Dealing with Hair Around the Eyes
If your pet’s hair becomes too long, it can contribute to staining and accumulation of debris. While some may suggest trimming the hairs, we find that cutting the hairs makes them sharp/pointy and may directly contact the cornea and lead to significant corneal problems (i.e., deep ulceration). Keeping the area clean is most important. Take the time to wash dirty hair surrounding the eyes with a gentle shampoo and be careful not to get soap in your pet’s eyes. If there are hairs present in the corners of the eyelids, then surgery to remove them may be recommended.

Bathe Safely
When bathing your pet, use only a safe, mild shampoo, avoid getting any shampoo in your pet’s eyes and thoroughly rinse your pet, as even the mildest shampoo can be troublesome if it is not completely washed off.

Guard Against Corneal or Permanent Eye Damage
How often do we see dogs hanging their head out the car window? While your dog may enjoy having the wind whip against his face, doing this can cause dirt and other debris to land in your pet’s eyes and can lead to corneal damage or permanent eye injury.

Schedule Routine Eye Exams
Ensure that your annual veterinary checkup includes a thorough eye exam to check for eye disease and other vision conditions.

Check with your veterinarian and stay informed about your pet’s breed and age factors that could impact the eyes. If you are aware of things to keep watch on, you’ll be more likely to catch problems early. When in doubt, always consult your veterinarian if anything looks awry with your pet’s eyes.

At Your Service: Ophthalmology

This entry is article 5 of 6 in the September 2014 issue

Sometimes it’s a miniscule piece of foreign material or the abnormal growth of eyelashes that can be or become problematic for an animal. Other times it’s something more serious. You don’t want to gamble with your pet’s eyesight and should always seek the advice of a professional for what may be perceived to be a minor eye injury. Tufts Foster Hospital for Small Animals at Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine‘s Ophthalmology Service is focused on the health the eyes. Foster Hospital provides access to the most advanced diagnostic technologies, including some exclusively available in this region. If your pet is not responding to a particular treatment or for eye problems that are more complex, your primary care veterinarian may want to seek the expert advice of an eye specialist, OR you may contact us directly.

The Ophthalmology Service at Foster Hospital for Small Animals is dedicated to providing medical and surgical management related to injuries and diseases of the eye, both for scheduled and emergency situations. We recognize that your primary care veterinarian can identify and treat most routine eye problems; however, there are more serious situations where you may want to seek the advice of a veterinary eye specialist. Our board-certified ophthalmologists may be able to treat an eye injury, diagnose an obscure or developing eye ailment and even help preserve or restore vision.

The Ophthalmology Service offers among the most advanced and comprehensive diagnostic and treatment practices in New England — 24 hours a day, seven days a week. Our board-certified ophthalmologists provide a full range of diagnostic and surgical services, from routine eye exams to specialized surgery, including laceration repair to corneal grafting to cataract removal. The majority of our cases are dogs and cats and we also treat some exotics and horses.

Our ophthalmology team works closely with its peers in anesthesia, pain management and other specialty areas, providing a full continuum of coordinated care for your pet.

Specialized Services
All patients receive a complete examination of their eyes and, in many cases, require specialized diagnostic testing procedures. Our ophthalmology clinic is fully equipped with state-of-the-art diagnostic equipment, including low and high resolution ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), Electroretinography (ERG), and Computed tomography (CT). Tufts is also proud to provide access to advanced diagnostic technologies that are not readily available in this region. These include:

  • Optical coherence temography (OCT), which is helpful in diagnosing corneal and retinal problems; and
  • Fluorescein angiography, which provides insight into the circulatory system of the eye through the use of a camera, allowing early detection of retinal disease

As New England’s only veterinary school, we also have clinical research studies under way that offer your pets access to innovative treatments not available elsewhere.

Common Eye Conditions & Surgical Procedures
Foster Hospital for Small Animals Ophthalmology Service sees a number of common conditions including, glaucoma, cataracts, retinal degeneration, and corneal ulcerations. The staff is experienced in the treatment of these conditions and more, including but not limited to the following surgical and/or therapeutic procedures:

  • Numerous eyelid procedures, including laceration repair and eyelid mass removal
  • Replacement of prolapsed glands and scrolled cartilage involving the third eyelid
  • Conjunctival grafts
  • Corneal transplants and corneal laceration repair
  • Cryotherapy for removal of distichia
  • Cataract removal surgery – phacoemulsification
  • Diode laser therapy, allowing non-invasive treatment of cysts and/or intraocular masses
  • Glaucoma management
  • Cyclosporine implants for the control of equine recurrent uveitis

What You Can Expect
Upon referral, our clinical liaison team will facilitate care, schedule appointments and serve as the contact point between Tufts Foster Hospital for Small Animals at Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine‘s clinical specialty departments, referring veterinarians and pet owners. Their commitment to keeping the lines of communication open ensure that your pet receives the highest standard of care.

Throughout our evaluation process, we will maintain an open line of communication with you and, if appropriate, your primary care veterinarian, where we provide clear and complete explanations of the diagnostic testing results, treatment options and the cost so that you can make the most informed decisions. As the only veterinary teaching hospital in New England, we are committed to training the veterinarians and animal care specialists of the future. You’ll find that students, interns and residents are integral members of the ophthalmology team, learning in a supervised environment to further their understanding of ocular problems.

Contacting Us
We are here to meet all of your ophthalmology needs.

Take a Pulse on your Pet’s Health Care Needs

This entry is article 4 of 6 in the September 2014 issue

With fall upon us and the kids back to school, use this time to take a pulse on your pet’s health care needs.

Vaccinations
Are your pet’s vaccines up-to-date? If you have children, you know the importance of maintaining a vaccination record. Just like for humans, pets need vaccinations and they sometimes require a booster to achieve maximum effectiveness. Your primary care veterinarian will maintain a record of your pets’ vaccinations and help to ensure you stay on schedule. Your vet’s suggestions will break down into core and non-core vaccinations - those recommended for every pet, vs. non-core vaccines that are advised based on your pet’s lifestyle. Check out this useful chart from WebMD to monitor the recommended vaccination schedule for your dog or cat and use it to start a conversation with your primary care veterinarian at your next wellness visit.

Eye Exams
Your pet is vulnerable to many of the same eye conditions that affect people, such as cataracts, glaucoma, corneal abrasions, tumors, retinal degeneration and dry eye. It’s important that you ensure your annual veterinary checkup includes a thorough eye exam to screen your pet for these eye conditions. Most primary care veterinarians have the capability to perform such routine eye examinations. If it has not been completed this year, contact your veterinarian to arrange for a comprehensive eye exam for your pet. Tufts Foster Hospital for Small Animals at Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine‘s Ophthalmology Service is focused solely on the health of the eyes and also provides access to routine eye care, in addition to the most advanced technologies. We are here to meet all of your ophthalmology needs. You may contact our Opthalmology Liaison between 8:00 a.m. and 5:45 p.m., at 508-887-4696 to schedule an appointment.

Dental Visits
Most primary care veterinarians will examine your pet’s teeth and gums during his or her yearly wellness visit. At that time your veterinarian may recommend that your pet also have a dental cleaning. For most dogs and cats, a yearly cleaning is sufficient to maintain good oral and dental health, and this routine dental care can be done by your family veterinarian. Basically, this will involve some form of sedation, a full oral exam with or without dental X-rays, scaling to remove plaque and tartar and polishing. Tufts Foster Hospital for Small Animals at Cummings School Dentistry and Oral Surgery team is experienced in these routine dental cleanings, as well as more complicated procedures. If you haven’t done so already this year, take time this fall to schedule a dental cleaning to ensure the best dental health possible for your furry family members. You can make an appointment with the dental team by calling 508-839-5395.