A new Digital Collections and Archives exhibit, “Jumbos in Protest: Student Activism at Tufts, 1965-2015,” is now on display on the second floor of the Tisch Library, near the entrance of the Tower Café. This exhibit of materials from DCA’s collections highlights a variety of student movements that took place on campus in the past five decades. During this time Tufts students have organized to protest apartheid in South Africa, American involvement in foreign wars such as Vietnam and Iraq, and for an end to discrimination against women and LGBT individuals, among numerous other causes.
Protest and social justice activism has been an integral part of Tufts history from the school’s foundation in 1852. The Universalists who founded and supported the College were steeped in a tradition of abolitionist activism. Remnants of Tufts College’s involvement in the anti-slavery movement are still visible on campus today. If you take a walk past the Cousens Gymnasium, you may notice a stone with a placard dedicated to George Luther Stearns, an ardent abolitionist and supporter of Tufts. Stearns was famous for being one of the “Secret Six” who financed John Brown’s raid on Harper’s Ferry.
Strike Center on Medford campus, circa 1970
The standing display case features materials that cover the entire fifty year span of the exhibit. Items range from photographs of the Vietnam War protests to rally flyers of anti-racist organizations. Some highlights of the exhibit are news articles about protests against the Gulf and Iraq wars in 1991 and 2003, a flyer from the Tufts Gay Community (TGC), and a list of demands from African American students in 1968.
The flat display case features items related to the anti-apartheid protests of the 1970s and ‘80s, as well as climate change activism of the recent past. The sit-in that took place at Ballou Hall this past spring happened almost thirty years to the day of a similar occupation by anti-apartheid protesters in 1985. Both events received extensive coverage in the Tufts Daily; articles from each sit-in are on display in this exhibit.
Students protesting Apartheid, April 29, 1978
The exhibit was curated, designed, and installed by Dan Bullman, Archives and Research Assistant. It will be on display until January 2015. If you want to learn more about the history of student activism at Tufts, feel free to contact the DCA at firstname.lastname@example.org. You can also drop in to our office on Level G of the Tisch Library from Monday-Friday 9 am-3:30 pm.
 Russell Miller, Light on the Hill, Volume I: A History of Tufts College 1852-1952 (Beacon Press: Boston, MA), 7-8.
 See: Otto Scott, The Secret Six: John Brown and the Abolitionist Movement (NYT Books: New York, NY) and Charles E. Heller, Portrait of an Abolitionist: A Biography of George Luther Stearns (Greenwood Press: Westport, CT).
For the original see Activities and organizations records, UA024.001.006.00008
The DCA cordially invites you to join the Order of the Coffee Pot! On September 5th as part of Tisch Library’s Freshman Open House, the Digital Collections and Archives (DCA) welcomes new students, their families, and all interested parties to explore Tufts traditions with coffee and iced tea, postcards and buttons, and an opportunity to win a Dunkin’ Donuts Gift card!
The Order of the Coffee Pot was one of the early secret societies at Tufts. As Russell Miller noted, secret societies at this time were equivalent to fraternities and were not really secret. The Order of the Coffee Pot was exclusively created for upperclassmen in their last two years at Tufts and was formed in 1858 as an offshoot of the Theta Delta Chi Fraternity. Augustus E. Scott, a founding member of the order, recalled the genesis of the group in a 1906 celebration of the Kappa Charge. He explains that after “students who were inclined to more studious things had gone to bed” late night suppers would occur. Food for these late night meals was procured from locked pantries using shovels to extract cakes and pies, while eggs were had from hens located behind their dormitory. Coffee accompanied these treats, providing the basis for late night meetings, and the Order of the Coffee Pot was born. Members of the Order of Coffee Pot were given a silver badge engraved with a coffee pot and the Latin phrase “Quum nobis placeat, cujus referet” – which translates to “Since it pleases us, whose business is it?” This badge was worn at all public occasions where coffee was served. The order lasted for ten years, 1858-1868, eventually dwindling away.
In 1951, there was an attempt to revive the Order of the Coffee Pot as a student organization that intended to be truly secret and was formed “to foster good fellowship on the Hill.” As reported in the Tufts Weekly, the new Order of the Coffee Pot was to be a self-perpetuating group manned by two members from the sophomore, junior, and senior classes. Based on a similar group in Bowling Green, Kentucky, the Order of the Coffee Pot was charged with publicizing school events in fun and entertaining ways. These secret members would be revealed at the end of their senior year in the Weekly and new members would be chosen from the freshmen class in secret. Despite the good intentions, no exposé of the members was published in the Weekly; it appears that the Order did not get off the ground.
However, we at the DCA thought it was a perfect institution to revive. So on September 5th, in honor of good fellowship and Tufts traditions, we are having our own celebration. Although no treats will have been gathered with a shovel, nor hens robbed of their eggs, we will offer refreshments and a peek into other interesting traditions that occurred at Tufts. We will have a mini-exhibit in the Reading Room touching on some early traditions at Tufts like the Jackson College baby parties, the Horribles parade, the periodic dunking of freshmen at the Reservoir, and beanies and bows, just to name a few. Those who come to the exhibit can enjoy our specially created buttons and postcards and enter to win a gift card to Dunkin’ Donuts, a New England tradition.
We look forward to meeting you and inducting you into the Order of the Coffee Pot!
 Russell Miller, Light on the Hill: A history of Tufts College 1852-1952 (Boston: Beacon Press Books, 1966), 384.
 Miller, 384.
 Nathan Marvin, “Kappa Charge: Its Founding & History,” Kappa Charge of Theta Delta Chi, Last Accessed September 2, 2015, https://www.kappacharge.org/public2.asp#found .
 Theta Delta Chi. “Kappa SemiCentennial ” The Shield: Official Publication of the Theta Delta Chi Fraternity, 22:1 (March 1906), 266. Google Book.
 Theta Delta Chi, 266.
 Theta Delta Chi, 266.
 Alaric Bertrans Start, ed. History of Tufts College, 1854-1896 (Cambridge, Massachusetts: University Press, 1897), 35.
 Bob Cox, “Coffee Pot Society Formed to Perk Up School Spirit.” Tufts Weekly LVI, 2 (October 4, 1951): 3.
Today marks four decades since the end of the Vietnam War, a conflict in which left approximately 3.1 million Vietnamese and over 58,000 American soldiers dead. The war made an impact on our entire nation and the Tufts community was no exception to this. This article will provide an overview of the war and focus on how the Tufts community responded to the conflict.
Students marching in protest of Vietnam War, October 1969 http://hdl.handle.net/10427/4348
The roots of the Vietnam War lie in French colonial rule in Southeast Asia during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. During World War II, as France fell to the Nazis, French colonies in Southeast Asia were occupied by Japanese troops. Local Vietnamese forces, led by Ho Chi Minh, developed a resistance movement to the Japanese occupation. At the end of the war in August 1945, Vietnam declared its independence, but France intended to retain the country as its own colony. As it became apparent the French were not leaving, the Vietnamese independence movement grew into a guerrilla struggle against French power. The Viet Minh, Ho Chi Minh’s guerrilla army, handed the French a series of stunning defeats, culminating in the route of French forces at Dien Bien Phu in 1954. This led to the effective withdrawal of the French and the division of the country into North Vietnam, with a Communist government in Hanoi, and South Vietnam, under the dictatorial rule of Ngo Dinh Diem in Saigon.
American involvement in Vietnam dates back to the early 1950s, when U.S. military advisors aided the French colonial authorities. The American troop presence in Vietnam escalated greatly during the John F. Kennedy administration, ballooning from several hundred advisers under Eisenhower to 16,000 troops by the time of Kennedy’s assassination. In 1964, Lyndon B. Johnson further escalated troop deployments in Vietnam after the Gulf of Tonkin attacks on American forces, which declassified documents later revealed may never have actually occurred. At this point, the Vietnam conflict escalated into full-scale war, as American forces conducted systematic bombings in North Vietnam; by 1968 there were over 500,000 U.S. troops on the ground in Vietnam.
In April 1965, Henry Cabot Lodge, then U.S. Senator and former Ambassador to Vietnam, delivered a hawkish speech at Tufts, declaring that a Communist victory in Vietnam would have grave consequences. Like JFK, he opposed withdrawal of American troops from Vietnam and called for continued military support of the government in South Vietnam.
Opposition to the war by the Tufts community also began as early as 1965. An article in the Tufts Weekly of February 19, 1965 describes students’ participation in an antiwar rally on the Boston Common that drew 250 people. At this point opposition to the war was still relatively small, both at Tufts and throughout the country. In 1965, there was still a general sense among the American people that military action in Vietnam was necessary, but public opposition to the war would grow into a mass movement as the 1960s progressed.
Anti-war poster on Wessell Library wall
A chapter of the radical student organization, Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) was formed in the fall of 1964. It would become one of the largest organized opponents of the war on the Tufts campus, in addition to other groups such as Young Socialist Alliance and the Committee to End the War in Vietnam. In March 1967, SDS brought Henry Aptheker to campus to speak as part of a national “Spring Mobilization to End the War.” In the fall of the same year, students protested against the CIA and Dow Chemical Company, both of which had come to campus to recruit students. In the following year, the Student Council voted to ban military recruiting on campus, but Tufts President Burton Hallowell would not concede to this demand.
The spring of 1970 was perhaps the pinnacle of antiwar activity on the Tufts campus. Antiwar events, such as a Dave Dellinger speaking engagement in March and an activist planning meeting in April, consistently drew hundreds of students. After Nixon’s April 30 announcement that the United States would be undertaking military action in Cambodia, protests erupted on campuses around the country. National Guard troops were even deployed on a number of campuses in an attempt to curb the protests. In Ohio, National Guard troops killed four people at Kent State University on May 4th, triggering a nationwide student strike that included approximately four million students, including many at Tufts. (On May 15, police killed two protesters at Jackson State, a historically Black college in Mississippi). Tufts students set up a strike center on the main campus and held rallies to protest the war and violence against protesters. The protests led to the effective cancellation of final exams, even though the University did not officially close.
Marjorie Keller speaks at first strike meeting after death of students at Kent State University, 1970
In addition to protests against military recruiting and the shootings at Kent State and Jackson State, the Fletcher School also became a target for antiwar activists’ ire. The most extreme example of this was firebombing of Dean Edward Gullion’s office in March 1971. Gullion felt as though he had been personally targeted by radicals because of his political views about Vietnam; though antiwar activists were suspected, the motivation behind the attack is unclear to this day because the perpetrators were never caught. Tufts SDS condemned the action as “absolutely indefensible” in a statement they released following the bombing.
By and large, Tufts student protests against the war were peaceful. The main tactics were rallies, demonstrations, and teach-ins. In addition to events at Tufts, students participated in antiwar events off-campus as well. The Observer publicized a Boston Winter Soldier event, where returning veterans talked about their experiences in the war, in October 1971. The following month, Tufts students participated in an antiwar rally organized by the Student Mobilization Committee (SMC) in Somerville. Antiwar activities on-campus continued and intensified in the spring of 1972, culminating in student strikes in April and May of 1972.
Public pressure on the Nixon administration and resistance within the U.S. military to the war pushed the country towards a peace deal. The United States brokered the Paris Peace Accords of 1973, which stipulated peace terms and a timeline for the withdrawal of U.S. military forces in Vietnam. Fighting still raged after the signing of the accords and it wasn’t until the end of 1973 that most American forces finally left Vietnam. The U.S. continued to supply military aid to the regime in South Vietnam, but this too was eventually scaled back. In March 1975, the North Vietnamese Army launched a final push that would lead to the surrender of the South Vietnamese government. Surprisingly, the fall of Saigon on April 30, 1975, which ended the war between North and South Vietnam, passed without mention in pages of the Observer.
By the end of the war, over 58,000 American soldiers had died in Vietnam, including six Tufts alumni. On November 13, 1984 a plaque was dedicated to these soldiers at the top of the Memorial Steps, inscribed with the quote: “In Remembrance of Those Members of the Tufts Community Who Served During the War in Southeast Asia.”
To learn more about the Vietnam War at Tufts, you can visit us to view our historical collections at Digital Collections and Archives (DCA). We are located on Level G of the Tisch Library and our Reading Room hours are Monday-Friday, 9:00AM-3:30PM, except university holidays. You are welcome to make an appointment or ask any questions by sending an email to email@example.com.
 Philip Shenon, “20 Years After Victory, Vietnamese Communists Ponder How to Celebrate,” New York Times, April 23, 1995, accessed April 17, 2015, http://www.nytimes.com/1995/04/23/world/20-years-after-victory-vietnamese-communists-ponder-how-to-celebrate.html and Samantha Power, “War and Never Having to Say You’re Sorry,” New York Times, December 14, 2003, accessed April 24, 2015, http://www.nytimes.com/2003/12/14/movies/war-and-never-having-to-say-you-re-sorry.html
 The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica, “Ngo Dinh Diem,” in Encyclopædia Britannica, accessed April 17, 2015 http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/413521/Ngo-Dinh-Diem
 “Vietnam,” John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum, accessed April 17, 2015, http://www.jfklibrary.org/JFK/JFK-in-History/Vietnam.aspx
 Elisabeth Bumiller, “Records Show Doubts on ’64 Vietnam Crisis,” New York Times, July 14, 2010, accessed April 17, 2015, http://www.nytimes.com/2010/07/15/world/asia/15vietnam.html?_r=0
 “Vietnam,” John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum, accessed April 17, 2015, http://www.jfklibrary.org/JFK/JFK-in-History/Vietnam.aspx
 “Lodge: ‘Defend Viet Nam’” in Tufts Weekly, April 9, 1965, 1 and 8.
 Tufts Weekly, February 19, 1965, page 1.
 William L. Lunch and Peter W. Sperlich, “American Public Opinion and the War in Vietnam,” in The Western Political Quarterly, Vol. 32, No. 1 (Mar., 1979), 21-44. http://www.jstor.org/stable/447561?seq=5#page_scan_tab_contents
 Russell Miller, Light on the Hill, Volume II: A History of Tufts University Since 1952 (MassMarket Books: Cambridge, MA), 270-272.
 Anne Sauer, et al., “Vietnam War, 1966-1973,” in Concise Encyclopedia of Tufts History (Digital Collections and Archives: Medford, MA), accessed April 17, 2014,
 Ibid, see also: “The Report of the President’s Commission on Campus Unrest,” President’s Commission on Campus Unrest, Washington, DC, accessed April 24, 2015, http://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED083899
 Observer, March 22, 1971, pages 1 and 5.
 Observer, October 1, 1971, page 6.
 Observer, November 5, 1971, page 1.
 Observer, April 21, 1972, page 1 and Observer, May 4, 1972, page 1.
 Sir! No Sir! directed by David Zeiger (2005; Los Angeles, CA: Displaced Films), DVD.
 “US withdrawal” and “Fall of Saigon” in “Vietnam War: History,” BBC News, accessed April 24, 2015, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/shared/spl/hi/asia_pac/05/vietnam_war/html/us_withdrawal.stm
 UA029. Student body collection. DCA.
 “Memorial Dedicated to Tufts Vietnam Veterans,” Tufts Journal, Vol. 6, No. 7, page 1.
Women playing ukeleles, 1965.
The 2015 Reunion Classes Exhibit is now on display in Tisch Library, near the entrance to the Tower Café. The exhibit highlights the classes of 2005, 2000, 1990, 1970, 1965, and 1945 as we welcome the classes back to campus for reunion weekend. It commemorates Tufts alumni through photographs, news clippings, and ephemera selected from the collections of the DCA.
The standing display case focuses on the 10th reunion class of 2005, the 25th of the class of 1990, and the 50th reunion class of 1965. Each year reflects campus life and world events that affected the Tufts community. Highlights from 2005 include photographs of guest speaker Senator Ted Kennedy as well as Tufts Daily articles on students protesting the genocide in Darfur and an alumni experience of Hurricane Katrina. Highlights from 1990 include pictures of Tufts students playing basketball on the South Hall Basketball courts as well Tufts Daily articles on the reunification of Germany and South African Youth Congress members’ call for an end to apartheid. Highlights from the class of 1965 include Tufts Weekly articles on Father Baer’s reflections on the Selma to Montgomery march and an article calling on administration to allow women to wear slacks on campus.
The flat display case focuses on the 10th reunion class of 2000, 45th reunion class of 1970 and the 70th reunion class of 1945. Class of 2000 highlights include orientation memorabilia and includes photographs of the Gore Rally. The class of 1970 display features photographs of Tufts’ memorial to the Kent State shootings and creation of the first co-ed dorms. The class of 1945 memorabilia from the Tufts vs. Harvard game includes the football program, tickets to the game, and articles that had been tipped into the program. Also featured are photographs of the ROTC band playing with trumpet player Bill Gammi and the ROTC marching to the game.
This exhibit was designed and installed by Rose Oliveira, Archives and Research Assistant. It will be on display until fall 2015. For more information on Tufts history and alumni, stop by the DCA on the Ground Floor of Tisch Library.
By Dan Bullman
Digital Collections and Archives is pleased to announce the recent donation of the Isabelle Hallin papers by Hallin advocate Peter Manoogian. The collection contains Hallin’s personal correspondence, photographs, theater programs, news clippings, and a scrapbook from her time at Jackson College in the 1930s.
Isabelle Hallin was a graduate of Jackson College, Tufts’ college for women, in 1933. She was hired to teach English at Saugus High School (SHS) in 1934. She rapidly became popular with her students and devoted time after school to organize a dramatic society at SHS. In May 1937, Hallin invited several students to her parents’ home to rehearse lines for the production of “Seventeen,” because the school facilities were too cold. Rumors quickly began to circulate that Hallin had thrown a wild cocktail party, serving alcohol to underage students.
As the rumors spread, several Saugus residents, including Minnie McDuffie of the Women’s Christian Temperance Union and Maria Smith of the Saugus School Board, began lobbying for Hallin’s removal from the school’s faculty. Events came to a head in July 1937, when the Saugus School Board voted 3-2 to decline to renew Hallin’s contract. She hired an attorney named Daniel Canning from Lynn, Massachusetts to fight this decision. News of Hallin’s situation made national headlines, with articles appearing in Time magazine, the Boston Globe, the New York Evening News, and the Oakland Tribune, among others. Students and administrators spoke out in defense of Hallin and called for a public hearing for her defense. Unfortunately, despite the support her campaign generated, she was denied a public hearing and did not get her job back.
In the fall of 1937, Hallin moved to New York City to get away from Saugus and to try to make a career as an actress. During this time, she earned an income by working several different jobs in advertising and publishing. Her acting career failed to take off. After spending a couple years in New York, Hallin began to show signs of depression. She withdrew from family and friends, rarely taking visitors or returning to Saugus. She told reporter William Brawders that she stayed away from Saugus because of the rumors that dogged her there. She was particularly distraught about the effect these rumors had on her parents, Annie and Carl Fred Hallin. On Christmas Eve 1941, Hallin turned on the gas stove in her New York apartment, went to sleep, and died in an apparent suicide. She was only twenty nine years old. Eleven days later the Saugus School Committee voted unanimously to withdraw all charges against her name and character.
DCA thanks Peter Manoogian and Isabelles nephew Laurence Hallin for generously donating this collection to Tufts. A complete finding aid for the collection can be viewed online in the Tufts Digital Library.
If you read Jill Lepore’s recent article on Wonder Woman in The New Yorker, “The Last Amazon,” it is very possible that a passage about Tufts caught your eye. On page 67 of the article, Lepore, a Tufts alum and recent honorary doctorate recipient, makes a brief mention of a curious and long since abandoned Jackson College tradition:
At Tufts, Marston and Olive Byrne conducted research together. Byrne took him to her sorority, Alpha Omicron Pi, where freshmen pledges were required to dress up like babies and attend a ‘Baby Party.’ Marston later described it: “The freshmen girls were led into a dark corridor where their eyes were blindfolded, and their arms were bound behind them.” Then the freshmen were taken into a room where juniors and seniors compelled them to do various tasks, while sophomores hit them with long sticks. (67)
The DCA’s collections, including the Melville Munro papers, contain a number of photographs of these Baby Parties, largely dating from the 1920s. But the collections don’t just give us photographic evidence of these events–they provide some historical context as well. Take this passage from a manuscript in our holdings written by former Tufts History professor Russell Miller:
There has always been freshman hazing to enliven proceedings, and one of the earliest traditions was the annual “baby party,” inaugurated in the fall of 1910. Such festivities were produced by the sophomores “as a suitable reward for improved conduct on the part of the freshmen.” This of course followed a period of hazing of the first-year students for which the survival rate was astounding. Rule Number 1 in 1910 was not to be seen with a Tufts man. In the 1920’s a grass-green button the size of a giant lollypop resided over the heart of every Jackson freshman until the Thanksgiving holidays, and woe betide the wearer who had a forgetful moment. In the fall of 1931, the green buttons gave way to green hair ribbons because of the disastrous effect on clothing. (17-18)
For more on Baby Parties and other interesting bits of Tufts history, stop by the DCA at any time during our open hours or check out our online collection material at the Tufts Digital Library.
 Lepore, Jill. “The Last Amazon.” The New Yorker. September 22, 2014: 64-73.
 Miller, Russell E. “Women’s Role in the History of Tufts University, A Sketch by Russell E. Miller” in Jackson College Histories binder. February 1960. Tufts University. Digital Collections and Archives. Medford, MA.
The Digital Collections and Archives and the Tisch Library are pleased to welcome Samantha (Sam) DeWitt to Tufts University as a National Digital Stewardship Resident. Sam comes to us as a nine-month resident through the National Digital Stewardship Residency (NDSR) program in Boston. The program is administered by Harvard Library and MIT Libraries with generous funding from the Laura Bush 21st Century Library Program of the Institute of Museum and Library Services. NDSR—Boston is sponsoring five residents this year at Harvard, MIT, Northeastern, WGBH, and Tufts. This program and a parallel program in New York are part of effort to develop a digital stewardship residency program initiated by the Library of Congress. The goal of the program is to “develop the next generation of digital stewardship professionals, through funded, post-graduate residencies.” More information about the NDSR-Boston program is at http://projects.iq.harvard.edu/ndsr_boston.
At Tufts Sam will be working on exploring strategies for Tufts to gain a more complete understanding of the research data produced by its faculty, research staff, post docs, and graduate students. In particular, this project will investigate and test strategies for producing metadata objects that represent Tufts-created research datasets and managing those representative objects in Tufts’ Fedora-based institutional repository.
Sam was previously at the Office of Scholarly Communication at Harvard University where, among other activities, she reviewed DASH (Digital Access to Scholarship at Harvard), Harvard’s model service for sharing and preserving scholarly objects. She also has experience at the Watertown Free Public Library; the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston; and the Fuller Craft Museum. Sam has a MS in Library and Information Science from Simmons College. She has also maintained a steady practice in fine arts, specializing in abstract landscapes.
Have you read “Stokely: a life” the new biography written by Tufts History professor Peniel Joseph? Want to learn more about this era and get to know Stokely Carmichael through his speeches? Come visit the DCA.
Here at the DCA we have audio recordings of the three lectures Stokely Carmichael gave at Tufts in 1968, 1970, and 1974. During his first visit, he chose to turn the standard structure of white intellectuals analyzing black community on its head by spending an hour analyzing the white community and answering questions from the crowd.
There are other fascinating speakers whose lectures are preserved in our collection. These include Bobby Seale, Leroi Jones, Muhammad Ali, and Kathleen Cleaver. If you want to learn more about the Black Panthers, explore late 60s and early 70s through the lens of the Black Liberation movement, or hear carefully crafted and strongly delivered oratorical rhetoric it is time to explore these stunning archival materials.
The Digital Collections and Archives is happy to welcome Dan Santamaria as our new Director and University Archivist. Dan began working at Tufts on September 2.
Dan comes to us from Princeton University where he was the Assistant University Archivist for Technical Services at the Seeley G. Mudd Manuscript Library since 2005. He has also held positions in the archives at the University of Michigan and the New York Public Library. He is Co-chair of the Standards Committee of the Society of American Archivists, among other leadership roles at SAA. Dan has an MS in Information from the University of Michigan and a BA from Wesleyan University.
The Digital Collections and Archives is happy to welcome Kendra Ciccone, who started at the DCA on August 18 as a term Processing Archivist. She will be spending most of her time working on the records of the Institute for Global Leadership and the Center for Health, Environment & Justice.
Kendra comes to Tufts from the National Archives regional office in Waltham. She also has worked in the archives at Brandeis University and at the Smithsonian Museum of American History and the Minute Man National Historical Park. Kendra has a MS in Library and Information Science from Simmons College and a BA from the University of Massachusetts, Lowell.
Please feel free to stop by the DCA to say hello to Kendra.