Karamoja is the poorest and least developed region of Uganda. The population experiences chronic food insecurity, little access to basic services, the weakening of traditional livelihood systems, ongoing insecurity, human rights violations and a near complete lack of law and order institutions. Armed raiding of livestock and associated loss of life and destruction of property are common and pervasive. Economic investment and development is minimal due to the threat of road ambushes and lack of transport and communication infrastructure. Attention to the region, however, on the part of national and international agencies, donors, and Ugandan legislators is growing. This field-based report provides an in-depth analysis of key aspects affecting livelihood strategies and human security in the region, as well as broad recommendations for local, national and international actors seeking to expand their knowledge, policies or programming in the Karamoja region.