Annotated Bibliography


  • Chaddad, F. and M. Cook (2004). Understanding New Cooperative Models: An Ownership-Control Rights Typology. Applied Economics Perspective and Policy, Vol. 26, No. 3, pp. 348-260. This article focuses on ownership models for agricultural cooperatives, examining one of the main issues we’re considering in this Field Project – how can we take more ownership of our food economy? How can we keep money spent on food local? While this academic article focuses on production instead of the whole food system and business owners instead of the broader community, the concepts are important to long-term goals for more ownership of our food system.
  • Dworkin, M. and M. Young (2012). “Shift Change: True stories of dignified jobs in democratic workplaces.” This film, screened at the Tufts University campus and several other Boston area locations in 2012 and 2013, is a documentary about how worker-owned cooperatives are reshaping the economy. With interviews and examples from major U.S. cities and international cooperatives, this film discusses the opportunities and challenges for growing the cooperative business model.
  • Community Partnering for Local Development (2010). “Diverse Economies Framework – Definition.” While the Practical Visionaries Field Project Team chose to use the term “community economy” to define our goals for the food economy, the “diverse economies” concept has been very influential in our understanding of how and why we need to shift our dominant economic paradigm. It is also closely linked to J.K. Gibson-Graham’s community economy definition. The diverse economies framework, initially introduced to us in the Practical Visionaries Workshop, organizes the economy into transactions, labor, and enterprise. The website also includes a Diverse Enterprises Inventory worksheet that informed our understanding of popular education tools.
  • Gibson-Graham, J.K. (2009). The Community Economies Project. While this site grew out of J.K. Gibson-Graham’s feminist critique of the political economy, it is a collaborative project that sites about 30 people (students, writers, activists, journalists) as contributors. While the site presents key ideas and community economy-focused research projects, it also links to publications, teaching resources, stories of community enterprises, and other links. Not only has the Community Economies Project informed our understanding of the community economy concept and practice, but it also serves as a model for the website we have developed for our final Field Project report.



  • Berkowitz, B. and E. Wadud (2013). The Community Tool Box: Identifying Community Assets and Resources. The University of Kansas, Work Group for Community Health and Development. While this resource is not focused on food issues, it provides a valuable collection of publications, activities, and mapping techniques for better understanding community health assets. The user-friendly web format makes it an effective tool for understanding and mapping a broad range of community assets.
  • Gibson, C. and J. Pottern (2012). Building Local Food Connections: A Community Food Systems Assessment for Concord, MA. The Conway School and the Concord Community Food Project Steering and Advisory Committee, 101 pages. This report is a model of a food systems assessment that is especially useful for communities working to increase local ownership over their food system. It provides a comprehensive look at needs and opportunities for localizing each part of the food system. The 2013 Practical Visionaries Field Project team also interviewed the authors of this report, gaining deeper insight into their process and experience with this food systems assessment.
  • Mendes, W. and J. Nasr (2011). Preparing future food systems planners and scholars: Reflections on teaching experiences. Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development (JAFSCD), Vol. 10, No. 1, pp. 15-52. This article discusses the inclusion of food systems in university planning departments. While it focuses on food planning in the university environment, the article provides relevant information on food system education and bridging the gap between universities and community-based, interdisciplinary approaches to food issues.
  • Meter, K. “Seventeen Reasons to do Food Systems Assessments.” Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development (FAFSCD), Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 7-9.This article provides a concise summary of key strategies for conducting food systems assessments. Methods for meeting assessment goals and accurately analyzing the health, wealth, capacity, and connections in our communities are described here.
  • Pierce-Quinonez, M. (2012). Are We Planning for Sustainable Food Systems? An Evaluation of the Goals and Vision of Food System Assessments and their Usefulness to Planning. Tufts University, Department of Urban and Environmental Policy and Planning (UEP),  58 pages. This thesis was an important resource for our project. Through descriptions of food systems assessment cases, types of assessments, and clearly defined issues and goals related to the food system assessment process, the Field Project team better understood the capabilities of food system assessments in the context of this project. The team also interviewed the author of this thesis about her research process and the practical application of her work.
  • West Virginia Food and Farm Coalition (2012). “Road Map for the Food Economy.” This guide is one of the few documents we found that focuses on the food economy – not just food access, assets, or affordability  but working to understand the relationship between food sector stakeholders and the money that flows between them.



  • City of Toronto (2009). Food Asset Map, Ward 32 – Beaches East York. In the early stages of our project, this map helped us determine which food assets were important to map – it informed the categories of stores included in the Food Economy Engagement Tool (FEET) Food Purchasing Log.
  • Stucker, H., V. Oothuys, and J. Peters (2012). Food Sources Map – Roxbury and surrounding neighborhoods. This map (co-authored by a 2013 Practical Visionaries team member) was our introduction to the Google Fusion format and gave us a much clearer idea about what could and could not be displayed through Google Fusion maps. This format makes the mapping component of the Field Project a much more democratic and dynamic process than would be possible otherwise.
  • The Collective Heritage Institute/Bioneers (2013). “Dreaming New Mexico – Local Foodsheds Map.” This icons used in this map informed the development of icons used in the food system diagram and Workshop 2. While we decided not to use icons in the maps themselves, we think they are an effective strategy for displaying information clearly and to a diverse audience.



  • Theatre of the Oppressed (Boal, 1979). This program was founded 1971 in Brazil. The Theatre of the Oppressed has an innovative history of using theater, storytelling, and social “actions” to solve conflicts in and mobilize communities. It values community knowledge and creativity as a means of empowerment for oppressed people. Boal’s book Theatre of the Oppressed serves as a basis for the international Theatre of the Oppressed organization, which continues to argue for a revolutionary type of theater in which the audience engages with the performers and creates a dialogue about the situations being performed. Describes a model for what a food literacy plan (an “intervention”) could look like. This might be an interesting reference point for popular education that revolves around food.
  • The Popular Education News. This free email newsletter provides popular education and community organizing resources for facilitators and practitioners.  The Popular Education News site includes an archive section with articles, tools and other resources that date back 40 years. The home page ( provides a brief description and history of popular education.
  • Comeuppance: Jobology Activity. This popular education activity focuses on job history – it may complement the food economy activities described on the workshop pages of the “Cultivate Your Food Economy” site.
  • A Popular Education Handbook. This handbook provides basic overviews and definitions of popular education. It includes program examples, specific educational tools and when to use them, and examples of various exercises that have informed or inspired many activities described on the workshop pages. This is an excellent resource for the early stages of developing a popular education curriculum, workshop, or session.
  • Highland Center. This resource discusses the use of popular education as a means to social change. The mission of the Highland Center is to use popular education, participatory research, and cultural work to “help create spaces…where people gain knowledge, hope and courage, expanding their ideas of what is possible.”



Bibliography – additional resources


  • Cameron, J. (2010). “Business as Usual or Economic Innovation?: Work, Markets and Growth in Community and Social Enterprises”, Third Sector Review, Special Issue on Social Enterprise and Social Innovation, Vol. 16, No. 2: 13 pages.
  • Cavaye, J. (2003). “Understanding Community Development.” Cavaye Community Development (CCD). Accessed 21 Feb. 2013 at
  • “Community Economic Development Action Strategies” (1994). Ready, Set, Go. Action Manual for Community Economic Development. Municipal Association of Victoria: 19 pages.
  • The Community Economies Collective (2001). “Imagining and Enacting Non-Capitalist Futures.” Socialist Review, Vol. 28, Nos. 3 and 4: pp. 93-135
  • Community Economies Project (2009). “About the Community Economies Collective”. Community Economies Project, accessed 02 Feb. 2013 at
  • Daly, H.E., J.B. Cobb, Jr., and C.W. Cobb (1994). For the Common Good: Redirecting the Economy Towards Community, Environment, and a Sustainable Future. Beacon Press: 534 pages
  • Egbers, A. and S. Epp (2009). “Working Together for Local Food: Co-operative Profiles and Resource Guide.” Canadian Co-operative Association (CCA), accessed 24 Feb. 2013 at
  • Gibson, K. and A. Hill (2010). Links to “Assets Mapping,” “Diverse Economies,” and “Community Enterprises”. Community Partnering for Local Development. Webpages accessed 02 Feb. 2012 at
  • Gibson, K. (2012). “Take Back the Economy, Any Time, Any Place – Pedagogies for Securing Community Economies: Lecture at the RGS-IBG Annual International Conference 2012.” Antipode, Imagining and Enacting Community Economies: June 2012 virtual issue, accessed 20 Feb. 2013 at
  • Gillespie, A.H. and G.W. Gillespie, Jr. (2006). “Generating Grounded Theory with Community Partners.” The Journal of Community Nutrition, Vol. 8, No. 1: pp. 16-23
  • Goodwin et. al (eds.) (2004). Microeconomics In Context: 2nd Edition. South-Western College Publishing: 512 pages
  • Graham, J. and J. Cornwell (2009). “Building community economies in Massachusetts: an emerging model of economic development?” The Social Economy: International Perspectives on Economic Solidarity, ed. A. Amin. Zed Books: pp. 37-65
  • Hammond Ketilson, L. (2009). “Financing Aboriginal enterprise development : the potential of using co-operative models.”Saskatoon Centre for the Study of Co-operatives, University of Saskatchewan, Vol. 09, No. 1: pp. 234-260 (Appendix D). Accessed 21 Feb. 2013 at
  • Harvey, D. (2009). “Urban Food Co-op Tackles Economic Empowerment.”  Race, Poverty and the Environment, Vol. 16, No. 2: 5 pages
  • Heirloom Harvest – Community Supported Agriculture (2013). “Heirloom Harvest CSA – What is an Urban Pick-Up Cooperative?” Accessed 23 Feb 2013 at
  • Mathie, A. and G. Cunningham, eds. (2008). From Clients to Citizens: Communities Changing the Course of Their Own Development. Practical Action Publishing, UK: 378 pages
  • Miller, E. (2010). “Solidarity Economy: Key Concepts and Issues.” Published in Kawano, E. and T. Masterson and J. Teller-Ellsberg (eds). Solidarity Economy I: Building Alternatives for People and Planet. Amherst, MA: Center for Popular Economics.
  • Miller, E. (2011). “Rethinking Economy for Regional Development: Ontology, Performativity, and Enabling Frameworks for Participatory Vision and Action.” The Graduate School of the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, M.S. thesis: 101 pages.. Accessed 18 Feb. 2013 at
  • The New Economics Foundation (NEF) (2008). “Plugging the Leaks: Local Economic Development.” Resources and Toolkit webpages accessed 16 Feb. 2013: and
  • Nuestras Raices (2013). “Nuestras Raices – About Us.” Accessed 23 Feb. 2013 at
  • Putnam, R.D. (1993). “The Prosperous Community: Social Capital and Public Life.” American Prospect, Vol. 13: pp. 35–42.
  • UN News Update (2 Nov. 2012). “Agricultural cooperatives can help end global hunger, says UN food agency.” UN News Centre online, accessed 24 Feb. 2013 at
  • Waller, W. and A. Jennings (1991). “A Feminist Institutionalist Reconsideration of Karl Polanyi.” Journal of Economic Issues, Vol. 25, No. 2: pp. 485-497
  • Young, I.M. (1990). Justice and the Politics of Difference. Princeton University Press: 283 pages
  • Act FRESH Campaign (2012). “Priorities for Healthy Places: 2013-2014.”  The Massachusetts Public Health Association, accessed 2/16/13 at
  • Delaware Valley Regional Planning Commission (DVRP). (2011). Eating here: Greater Philadelphia’s Food System Plan: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Accessed 21 Feb. 2013 at
  • Dunning, R., Creamer, N., Massey Lelekacs, J., O’Sullivan, J., Thraves, T., & Wymore, T. (2012). “Educator  and Institutional Entrepreneur: Cooperative Extension and the building of localized food systems.” Journal of Agriculture,  Food Systems, and Community Development, Vol. 3, No. 1: pp. 99–112.
  • Freedgood, J., Pierce-Quinonez, M., Meter, K., (2011). “Emerging assessment tools to inform food system planning”. Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development, Vol. 2, No.1: pp. 83-104.
  • Gibson, C. and J. Pottern (2012). “Building Local Food Connections: A Community Food Systems Assessment for Concord, Mass.” Concord Community Food Project Steering and Advisory Committee, The Conway School: 114 pages.
  • Gottlieb, R. and A. Fisher (2000). “Community Food Security and Environmental Justice.” Race, Poverty and the Environment, Vol. 7, No. 2: pp. 18-20
  • Hild, C. (2009). “The Economy of Local Food in Vancouver”.
  • Magnusson, M. (2010) “Homegrown: The Economic Impact of Local Food Systems in New Hampshire”.
  • Meter, K. (2011). “Seventeen reasons to do food system assessments.” Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development, Vol. 2, No. 1: pp. 7–9.
  • Pierce-Quinones, M. (2012). “Are We Planning for Sustainable Food Systems? An Evaluation of the Goals and Vision of Food System Assessments and their Usefulness to Planning.” Tufts University’s Department of Urban and Environmental Policy and Planning and the Tufts Friedman School of Nutrition Science & Policy: 58 pages.
  • Pothukuchi, K., & Siedenburg, K. (Eds.). (2002). What’s cooking in your food system?: a guide to community food assessment. Community Food Security Coalition.
  • Raja, S., B. M. Born, and J.K. Russell (2008). “A planners guide to community and regional food planning: transforming food environments, facilitating healthy eating.” Chicago, IL: American Planning Association
  • Smith, C. R, Huber, P., & Russell, M. (2007). Analyzing local food systems for success: Naming and graphing entrepreneurial and community based agriculture linkages.  Des Moines, Iowa: Leopold Center for Sustainable Agriculture. Accessed 21 Feb. 2013 at
  • Swenson, D. (2007). Economic impact summaries for local food production. Ames, Iowa: Iowa State University.
  • Kahler, E., Perkins, K., Pipino, H., Sawyer, S., and J. St. Onge (2011). “Farm to Plate Strategic Plan.” Montpelier, Vermont: Vermont Sustainable Jobs Fund. Accessed 21 Feb. 2013 at
  • Arnold, R., B. Burke, C. James, D. Martin, and B. Thomas (1991). Educating for a Change, Doris Marshall Institute.
  • Arnold, R. and B. Burke (1983). A Popular Education Handbook. Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, Canada and CUSO Development Education: 59 pages
  • Bertini, G. (2010). “Learning Change Project.” Learning Research and Change Methods Blog, accessed 19 Feb. 2013 at
  • Boal, A. (1979). Theater for the Oppressed. Urizen Books, New York: 202 pages.  Also accessed on 29 Jan. 2013 at
  • Braster, S. (2011). “The People, The Poor, and The Oppressed: The Concept of Popular Education Through Time” Paedagogica Historica: International Journal of the History of Education, Vol. 47, No. 1-2: pp. 1-14.
  • Boyd, D. (n.d.) “Under the Radar: Popular Education in North America: A White Paper.”
  • Carillo, A. T. (2010). Generating Knowledge in Popular Education: From Participatory Research to the Systematization of Experiences” International Journal of Action Research, Vol 6, No. 2-3: pp. 196-222.
  • Catalyst Centre (2008). “Popular Education Toolkit – Jobology.” Comeuppance Blog, accessed on 30 Jan. 2013 at
  • Delp, L., M. Outman-Kramer, S.J. Schurman, and K. Wong (eds.) (2002). Teaching for Change: Popular Education and the Labor Movement. UCLA Center for Labor Research and Education, Los Angeles: CA, 250 pages.
  • Dr. Pop (n.d.). “What is Popular Education.” Dr. Pop, accessed 20 Feb. 2013 at
  • Escueta, M., S. Butterwick (2012). “The Power of Popular Education and Visual Arts for Trauma Survivors’ Critical Consciousness and Collective Action.” International Journal of Lifelong Education, Vol 31, No. 3: pp.325-340.
  • Flowers, R. (2009). “Traditions of Popular Education.” Report Zeitschrift fuer Weiterbildungsforschung, Vol. 32, No. 2: pp. 9-22.
  • Hall, B. and D. Clover (1997). “The Future Begins Today: Nature as Teacher in Environmental Adult Popular Education.” Futures, Vol 29, No. 8: pp. 737-747.
  • Jara, O. (2010). “Popular Education and Social Change in Latin America.” Community Development Journal, Vol 45, No. 3: pp.287-296.
  • Kane, L. (2010). “Community Development: Learning from Popular Education in Latin America.” Community Development Journal, Vol 45, No. 3: pp.276-286.
  • The Popular Education News (2009). “Definitions of Popular Education” and “Downloadable Resources.” The Popular Education News 2003-2011. Accessed on 29 Jan. 2013 at
  • The Trapese Collective (eds.) (2007). Do It Yourself: A Handbook for Changing our World. Pluto Press, Ann Arbor, MI: 292 pages.
  • United for a Fair Economy (UFE) (2011). “About Popular Education.” United for a Fair Economy, accessed 29 Jan. 2013 at
  • United for a Fair Economy (2012). “The Growing Divide: Inequality and the Roots of Economic Insecurity.” Trainer’s Manual, accessed 22 Feb. 2013 at 



Popular Education Tools