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Genetic analysis finds a neuroimmune view of schizophrenia
Posted on August 4, 2016 by Katherine Malanson | Categories: ND Final Project, ND Unit3, Neurological Disorders | | Add comment |

[describe image in words]Synapses in human neurons. Heather de Rivera, McCarroll lab

Genetic analysis, involving nearly 65,000 people, finds a surprising risk factor for schizophrenia — a variation in an immune molecule best known for its role in containing infection. The findings, published in the journal Nature, also support the emerging idea that schizophrenia is a disease of synaptic pruning, and could lead to new approaches to treating this devastating illness.

Read more at ChildrensHospital.org

Updated Brain Map Identifies Nearly 100 New Regions
Posted on by Katherine Malanson | Categories: ND Final Project, ND Unit1, Neurological Disorders | | Add comment |

[describe image in words]A new map based on brain scan data collected by the Human Connectome Project. The data revealed 97 new regions, bringing the total to 180. Matthew F. Glasser, David C. Van Essen.

In what many experts are calling a milestone in neuroscience, researchers published a spectacular new map of the brain in the journal Nature, detailing nearly 100 previously unknown regions — an unprecedented glimpse into the machinery of the human mind.

Read more at NYTimes.com

News & Views: Researchers offer jet lag advice in return for data about your sleep
Posted on May 18, 2016 by Katherine Malanson | Categories: ND Lesson4-2, ND Lesson4-4, ND Lesson4-5, ND Unit4, Neurological Disorders | | Add comment |

Doug Griswold/Bay Area News Group/MCT via Getty Images

Users of an app developed by the University of Michigan to help with jet lag entered information on their time zone and sleep patterns that helped academics with their work. But is the approach valid? The analysis of the data was published in the journal Science Advances, but critics worry that using data generated via smartphones might not be a representative sample.

Read more at NPR.org.

News & Views: Reviving memory with an electrical current
Posted on by Katherine Malanson | Categories: ND Final Project, ND Lesson2-5, ND Unit2, Neurological Disorders | | Add comment |

Lilly Padula for NPR

While still experimental, deep brain stimulation with implanted electrodes is being tested as a way to ease dementia in patients with Alzheimer’s and other neurological conditions. Could it work? Recent studies, published in the New England Journal of MedicineJournal of Neurosurgery, and Molecular Psychiatry suggest it just might.

Read more at NPR.org.

News & Views: Suddenly Paralyzed, 2 Men Struggle to Recover from Guillain-Barre
Posted on by Katherine Malanson | Categories: ND Lesson2-3, ND Lesson2-5, ND Unit2, Neurological Disorders | | Add comment |

Rae Ellen Bichell and Katie Park/NPR

Guillain-Barre syndrome can render healthy people temporarily paralyzed. It’s something you’re likely to hear more about as Zika continues to spread, because exposure to pathogens like Zika can set that stage for the syndrome. And for those who get it, it is one wild ride.

Hear the stories of two men who struggled to recover from it at NPR.org and read more about the syndrome at ninds.gov.

News & Views: How a simple bump can cause an insidious brain injury
Posted on May 6, 2016 by Katherine Malanson | Categories: ND Final Project, Neurological Disorders | | Add comment |

Source

Hundreds of thousands of people suffer brain injuries each year. Sometimes the damage is caused by something that seems innocuous, like a stumble or a bump on the head. When should you see a doctor?

Read more at NPR.org.

News & Views: A concussion can lead to sleep problems that last for years
Posted on by Katherine Malanson | Categories: ND Final Project, ND Unit4, Neurological Disorders | | Add comment |

iStockphoto

A recent study published in the journal Neurology found eighteen months after a concussion or other traumatic brain injury, two-thirds of the patients were still sleepy during the day. And most were unaware of their symptoms.

Read more at NPR.org.

News & Views: Half your brain stands guard when sleeping in a new place
Posted on by Katherine Malanson | Categories: ND Unit4, Neurological Disorders | | Add comment |

parema/Getty images

No wonder we don’t feel rested after a first night in a new place: Half of our brain has stayed alert while the other half enjoyed deeper sleep, a study published in Current Biology finds. We really have been half-asleep.

Read more at NPR.org.

News & Views: After ‘The Biggest Loser’ their bodies fought to regain weight
Posted on by Katherine Malanson | Categories: MD Unit3, Metabolic Disease | | Add comment |

NBC via Getty Images

New research published in the journal Obesity found that many Biggest Loser contestants regain much of the weight they lost during the show — sometimes 100 pounds or more — because their biology works against them.

Read more at NYTimes.com.

News & Views: No ‘science’ did not ‘prove’ that dogs hate hugs
Posted on by Katherine Malanson | Categories: ND Final Project, Neurological Disorders | | Add comment |

iStock photo

If you have an Internet connection, you’ve probably read at least one story in the past couple of days claiming that science has shown that dogs hate being hugged. Those at The Washington Post’s Speaking of Science squeeze the life out of this misleading science coverage.

Read more at WashingtonPost.com.

News & Views: FDA Acts to Regulate E-Cigarettes For the First Time
Posted on by Katherine Malanson | Categories: ND Unit5, Neurological Disorders, News | | Add comment |

Justin Sullivan/Getty Images

The Food and Drug Administration has issued sweeping new rules that tighten its control over e-cigarettes, banning their sale to minors. The agency is also expanding its regulation of tobacco.

Read more at NPR.org.

News & Views: For teenagers, adult-sized opioid addiction treatment doesn’t fit
Posted on January 17, 2016 by Katherine Malanson | Categories: ND Final Project, ND Unit5, Neurological Disorders | | Add comment |

Trina Dalziel/Illustration Works/Getty Images

Teenage brains are more susceptible to drug abuse, but it’s often hard to find treatment. It’s even harder to find evidence-based treatment designed for youth. But that’s starting to change.

Read more at NPR.org.

News & Views: We eat too much sodium because companies keep dumping it in our food
Posted on January 11, 2016 by Katherine Malanson | Categories: MD Lesson1-5, MD Unit1, Metabolic Disease | | Add comment |

Scott Olson/Getty Images

A study finds that nearly all Americans — regardless of age, race or gender — consume more sodium than recommended. The CDC says food companies need to work harder to cut it in their products.

Read more at NPR.org.

News & Views: Stomach of ancient iceman held microbes like ours
Posted on by Katherine Malanson | Categories: ID Unit2, Infectious Disease | | Add comment |

EURAC/Marion Lafogler

Scientists analyzed the tummy of a 5,300-year-old ice mummy and found bacteria that many modern humans still carry. The results, published in the journal Science, suggest that the community of microbes living on and in humans has existed for millennia.

Read more at NPR.org.

Anatomy of Addiction: How heroin and opioids hijack the brain
Posted on by Katherine Malanson | Categories: ND Final Project, ND Unit1, ND Unit5, Neurological Disorders, News | | Add comment |

LA Johnson/NPR

Roughly 2.5 million Americans are addicted to heroin and opioids like Oxycontin. Researchers say addiction takes over the brain’s limbic reward system, impairing decision making, judgment and recovery.

Read more at NPR.org.

News & Views: Too much TV and chill could reduce brain power over time
Posted on January 7, 2016 by Katherine Malanson | Categories: ND Final Project, ND Unit1, ND Unit5, Neurological Disorders, News | | Add comment |

Raoul Minsart/Masterfile/Corbis

Young adults who watch at least three hours of TV a day might end up with less cognitive function by middle age, a study published in the journal JAMA Psychiatry finds. That’s especially true if they’re sedentary couch potatoes.

Read more at NPR.org.

News & Views: A Protein in the Gut May Explain Why Some Can’t Stomach Gluten
Posted on by Katherine Malanson | Categories: MD Lesson2-1, MD Unit2, Metabolic Disease | | Add comment |

JPM/Getty Images

Some people who don’t have celiac disease say they feel better on a gluten-free diet. Researchers have long been puzzled as to why. A study suggests it could be because of a protein called zonulin.

Read more at NPR.org.

News & Views: Netflix and Chew: How Binge Watching Affects Our Eating Habits
Posted on by Katherine Malanson | Categories: MD Lesson3-3, MD Lesson3-4, MD Unit3, Metabolic Disease | | Add comment |

iStockphoto

Lots of research suggests munching while watching TV promotes mindless eating. Overall viewing time is a key factor. But the genre of what you are watching may also influence how much you consume.

Read more at NPR.org.

News & Views: Why tortillas may hold the key to healthier babies
Posted on by Katherine Malanson | Categories: MD Lesson1-2, MD Unit1, Metabolic Disease | | Add comment |

Veronica Zaragovia for NPR

In the U.S., pastas and breads come with a dose of folic acid, a B vitamin that prevents severe neural tube birth defects. But it’s not allowed in corn masa, a staple for many Hispanic women.

Read more at NPR.org.

News & Views: Best Diets 2016: From Fastest Weight Loss to Conquering Cravings
Posted on by Katherine Malanson | Categories: MD Unit5, Metabolic Disease | | Add comment |

U.S. News & World Report has released its annual diet rankings.iStockphoto

U.S. News & World Report’s annual diet rankings give top marks to a meal-replacement plan to shed pounds fast. There’s also a low-carb diet to stave off cravings; its virtues are sung in a new book.

Read more at NPR.org.

News & Views: Lack of sleep may set stage for Alzheimer’s
Posted on January 4, 2016 by Katherine Malanson | Categories: ND Final Project, ND Lesson2-5, ND Unit1, ND Unit2, Neurological Disorders | | Add comment |

Courtesy of Oregon Health & Science University

A mouse’s brain clears out toxins during periods of deep sleep — including toxins that form sticky plaques associated with Alzheimer’s disease. Could the same hold true for people?

Read more at NPR.org.

News & Views: A peek at brain connections may reveal attention deficits
Posted on by Katherine Malanson | Categories: ND Final Project, ND Unit1, Neurological Disorders | | Add comment |

iStockphoto

By assessing the strength of certain connections in the brain with an MRI test, researchers report in the journal Nature Neuroscience that they were often able to tell whether children and adolescents had attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Read more at NPR.org.

News & Views: Doctor behind ‘Concussion’ wanted to ‘enhance the lives’ of football players
Posted on December 29, 2015 by Katherine Malanson | Categories: ND Final Project, ND Unit1, Neurological Disorders | | Add comment |

Bryan Bedder/Getty Images

Dr. Bennet Omalu’s discovery of a new degenerative brain disease among football players inspired a movie-and the wrath of the NFL.

Read more at NPR.org.

News & Views: How the food industry helps engineer our cravings
Posted on by Katherine Malanson | Categories: Metabolic Disease, ND Unit5, Neurological Disorders | | Add comment |

Yagi Studio/Getty Images

To make foods irresistible, the food industry has added sweetness in unexpected places — like bread and pasta sauce. That’s helped shape our cravings but may also be coming back to bite the industry.

Read more at NPR.org.

News & Views: The neuroscience of musical perception, bass guitars and Drake
Posted on by Katherine Malanson | Categories: ND Final Project, ND Unit1, Neurological Disorders | | Add comment |

Maria Fabrizio for NPR

Recent research published in the journal PNAS hints at how the human brain is uniquely able to recognize and enjoy music. Timing in your brain is nearly everything.

Read more at NPR.org.

News & Views: As aging brain’s internal clock fades, a new timekeeper may kick in
Posted on by Katherine Malanson | Categories: ND Unit4, Neurological Disorders | | Add comment |

Universal Stopping Point Photography/Getty Images

Everyone has a set of genes that keeps the body on a 24-hour rhythm. As we get older, though, the main clock can malfunction, a study published in the journal PNAS finds. Researchers say a backup clock may try to compensate.

Read more at NPR.org.

News & Views: How do successful people’s sleep patterns compare to the average American?
Posted on by Katherine Malanson | Categories: ND Unit4, Neurological Disorders | | Add comment |

Seb Oliver/Getty Images/Cultura RF

Successful people get more sleep than you might expect. Are their sleep patterns giving them a leg-up on the average American?

Read more at NPR.org.

News & Views: A bad night’s sleep might do more harm than you think
Posted on December 7, 2015 by Katherine Malanson | Categories: ND Unit4, Neurological Disorders | | Add comment |

Dibyangshu Sarkar/AFP/Getty Images

What if you could never get a good night’s rest? Researchers are investigating whether sleep deprivation can keep people trapped in poverty.

Read more at NPR.org.

News & Views: Too much TV and chill could reduce brain power over time
Posted on by Katherine Malanson | Categories: ND Final Project, ND Unit1, Neurological Disorders | | Add comment |

Raoul Minsart/Masterfile/Corbis

Young adults who watch at least three hours of TV a day might end up with less cognitive function by middle age, a study published in the journal JAMA Psychiatry finds. That’s especially true if they’re sedentary couch potatoes.

Read more at NPR.org.

News & Views: The brain’s GPS may also help us map our memories
Posted on November 9, 2015 by Katherine Malanson | Categories: ND Final Project, ND Unit1, Neurological Disorders, Uncategorized | | Add comment |

TongRO Images/Corbis

Brain cells that track our location also can track time and distance, a new study published in the journal Neuron finds. This could explain how the brain uses place and time to organize memories throughout our lives.

Read more at NPR.org.

News & Views: Scaring people can make them healthier, but it isn’t always the way to go
Posted on November 4, 2015 by Katherine Malanson | Categories: ND Final Project, ND Lesson5-6, ND Lesson5-7, ND Unit5, Neurological Disorders | | Add comment |

Matilde Campodonico/AP

Fear campaigns can motivate people to quit smoking or eat less. But fearmongering can go too far. When is scaring for health’s sake acceptable, and when is it distasteful?

Read more at NPR.org.

News & Views: Things that Go Bump in the Lab: Halloween and the science of fear
Posted on October 30, 2015 by Katherine Malanson | Categories: ND Unit1, Neurological Disorders | | Add comment |

By collecting data on guests who visit a haunted house in Pittsburgh, scientists are trying to learn a little bit about what scares us, and why some people enjoy this sensation enough to seek it out.

Listen to the story at NPR.org.

News & Views: Could depression be caused by an infection?
Posted on by Katherine Malanson | Categories: ND Final Project, ND Unit1, Neurological Disorders | | Add comment |

Katherine Streeter for NPR

Infection and autoimmune activity result in inflammation. And psychiatric researchers now suspect that inflammation may play a role in some cases of depression and other mental illnesses.

Read more at NPR.org.

News & Views: Reversing opioid overdoses saves lives but isn’t a cure-all
Posted on October 8, 2015 by Katherine Malanson | Categories: ND Lesson5-6, ND Lesson5-7, ND Unit5, Neurological Disorders | | Add comment |

Jesse Costa/WBUR

Having police, school nurses, drug users and family equipped with kits to reverse an overdose saves lives, doctors say. But reversing addiction requires follow-up care that many users aren’t getting.

Read more at NPR.org.

News & Views: Work on Parasite Diseases Earns Nobel Prize in Medicine
Posted on October 5, 2015 by Katherine Malanson | Categories: Infectious Disease, News | | Add comment |

Satoshi Omura, Youyou Tu and William C. Campbell share in the 2015 Nobel Prize in Medicine
Nobel Prize Committee

The medicines they helped develop are credited with improving the lives of millions. Among the three winners: William C. Campbell of Drew University, for his work on the roundworm parasite.

Read more at NPR.org.

News & Views: Breast cancer gene test helps predict who can skip chemo
Posted on September 30, 2015 by Katherine Malanson | Categories: Cancer | | Add comment |

Michael Jarret/Genomic Health

A large study confirms that a test doctors have been using for a decade works well for low-risk patients. More work is needed to draw conclusions about chemotherapy for women with riskier tumors.

Read more at NPR.org.

News & Views: Nature vs Nurture: Cloning your dog, for a mere $100,000
Posted on by Katherine Malanson | Categories: ND Final Project, Neurological Disorders | | Add comment |

Edmund D. Fountain for NPR

The Duponts in Louisiana loved their mutt Melvin so much they jumped at the chance to replicate him. Melvin is gone now, but he’s left behind two clones, Ken and Henry.

Read more at NPR.org.

News & Views: Should school nurses stock a drug to reverse opioid overdoses?
Posted on September 17, 2015 by Katherine Malanson | Categories: ND Unit5, Neurological Disorders | | Add comment |

Michelle Faust/Side Effects Public Media

With deaths from heroin and painkillers on the rise, more nurses at high schools and middle schools are prepared to intervene in the event of an overdose on school grounds.

Read more at NPR.org.

News & Views: Caffeine at night resets your inner clock
Posted on by Katherine Malanson | Categories: ND Unit4, Neurological Disorders, News | | Add comment |

Hayato D./Flickr

Late-night coffee, tea or cola does more than keep you up, scientists say. The amount of caffeine in a double espresso can delay the internal clock in cells throughout your body by about 40 minutes, according to a study published in the journal Science Translational Medicine.

Read more at NPR.org.

1 Tutor + 1 Student = Better Math Scores + Less Fear
Posted on September 11, 2015 by Katherine Malanson | Categories: ND Final Project, ND Unit1, ND Unit5, Neurological Disorders | | Add comment |

iStockphoto

Math anxiety is much like other fears, say scientists who scanned the brains of third-graders. Fortunately, new research published in the Journal of Neuroscience, indicates that one-on-one tutoring soothed the fear circuit in anxious kids’ brains and improved performance, too.

Read more at NPR.org.

News & Views: Snooze Alert: A sleep disorder may be harming your body and brain
Posted on August 27, 2015 by Katherine Malanson | Categories: ND Unit4, Neurological Disorders | | Add comment |

M. Scott Brauer for NPR

A lack of sleep can increase the risk of traffic accidents, heart attacks, diabetes and maybe even Alzheimer’s disease, research suggests. Yet most people with sleep disorders don’t get treatment.

Read more at NPR.org.

News & Views: How the prescription painkiller fentanyl became a street drug
Posted on by Katherine Malanson | Categories: ND Unit5, Neurological Disorders | | Add comment |

Joe Amon/Denver Post/Getty Images

The synthetic opioid fentanyl is used for surgery and to treat severe pain. Abuse has always been a problem. Now that it’s being used to cut heroin, the risk of overdose or death has soared.

Read more at NPR.org.

News & Views: GMOs are becoming a proxy for bigger concerns about the food system
Posted on August 19, 2015 by Katherine Malanson | Categories: MD Unit1, Metabolic Disease | | Add comment |

Source

Social scientists and consumer researchers say the battle over GMOs isn’t really about genetically modified organisms. They say the GMOs have become a stand-in for what consumers really want: less processed, natural food.

Listen to the story and read more at NPR.org.

News & Views: Bedtime stories for young brains
Posted on August 18, 2015 by Katherine Malanson | Categories: ND Final Project, ND Unit1, Neurological Disorders | | Add comment |

Getty Images

It’s been known for awhile that reading to a young child is associated with good outcomes, including language development and school success. But what remains unknown is the mechanism for these outcomes. A new study, published in the journal Pediatrics, examines the unexpectedly complex interactions that happen in the brain when you put a small child on your lap and open a picture book.

Read more at NYTimes.com.

News & Views: You don’t need to go low-car to burn body fat, study says
Posted on August 17, 2015 by Katherine Malanson | Categories: MD Final Project, MD Unit5, Metabolic Disease | | Add comment |

Mahafreen H. Mistry/NPR

Popular advice suggests a low-carb diet is necessary to trigger the body to shed fat. But a small, rigorous study published in the journal Cell Metabolism finds low-fat diets also spark body-fat loss. The key: Choose a diet you’ll stick to.

Read more at NPR.org.

News & Views: When rehab might help an addict – but insurance won’t cover it
Posted on by Katherine Malanson | Categories: ND Final Project, ND Lesson5-6, ND Lesson5-7, ND Unit5, Neurological Disorders | | Add comment |

Ben Allen/WITF. Cris and Valerie Fiore hold one of their favorite pictures of their sons Anthony (with the dark hair) and Nick. Anthony died from a heroin overdose in May 2014 at the age of 24.

Federal law requires insurance firms to cover treatment for addiction as they do treatment for other diseases. But because addiction treatment is so different from treatment for other medical issues, it’s hard to figure out exactly what equal treatment looks like, and some families say that drug users aren’t getting the care they need.

Read more at NPR.org.

News & Views: Should your Paleo diet be including carbs?
Posted on August 13, 2015 by Stephanie Tammen | Categories: MD Final Project, MD Unit5, Metabolic Disease, News | | Add comment |

PaleoCarbs

Image source: New York Times

The Paleo diet is based on the belief that we should eat foods that our ancestors ate. Typically this means that Paleo diet followers stick to diet high in meats and vegetables, and steer clear of carbohydrates. Newly published research is arguing this notion, and hypothesizes that the human brain needed glucose provided by carbohydrates to evolve.

Read more about the interconnection of glucose metabolism and human evolution at The New York Times.

News & Views: More evidence that music eases pain, anxiety after surgery
Posted on by Katherine Malanson | Categories: ND Final Project, ND Lesson3-1, ND Unit3, Neurological Disorders | | Add comment |

iStockphoto

Most studies of music’s ability to ease pain have been small. But an analysis pooling the best research, published Wednesday in the journal The Lancet, builds a strong case, doctors say that a dose of music reduces the need for painkillers.

Read more at NPR.org.

News & Views: Is football worth the brain-injury risk? For some, the answer is no.
Posted on August 12, 2015 by Katherine Malanson | Categories: ND Final Project, ND Unit1, Neurological Disorders | | Add comment |

Charles Rex Arbogast/AP

When he killed himself at 50, former NFL player Dave Duerson’s brain showed serious damage, likely from hits during his football career. His son now questions the gamble of playing the game.

Read more at NPR.org.

News & Views: States haven’t embraced later school start time for teens
Posted on August 10, 2015 by Katherine Malanson | Categories: ND Final Project, ND Unit4, Neurological Disorders | | Add comment |

iStockphoto

Last year the nation’s pediatricians said middle and high schoolers shouldn’t start school before 8:30 a.m., so they can get much-needed sleep. But almost all schools start before that, the CDC finds.

Read more at NPR.org.