If I were not stopped short by poverty, I would travel far from here, to a country where I would go to school all week long, and play soccer on a nice grassy field, and where no one would want to mistrust me and kill me, ever again.

- Cassius Niyonsaba,Genocide survivor, Rwanda. Extract from ‘Life Laid Bare’ by Jean Hatzfeld.

I think that having the option to settle outside Rwanda would be one of the greatest gifts that any concerned people or country can give to Rwandan genocide survivors. Even 15 years after the genocide, many survivors today still live in fear that they will be the next victims of those people who killed their families in 1994 and now see them as the only remaining witnesses to their heinous and inhumane crimes. In addition to offering protection from the physical danger that survivors currently live in, giving genocide survivors the option to resettle outside of Rwanda would eliminate the psychological wounds that many continue to suffer living next door to the people who killed their families in 1994 and being constant targets of their harassment and taunting.

- Genocide survivor, Rwanda. (Email, August 18, 2009)

Psychologically it is very difficult to deal with this idea that we have to live with our killers. I passed a big part of my life after genocide in Kigali, far from my native city and was always afraid. I know that in the village, survivors are neighbors with the killers. It’s too much for survivors and for me this is a new way to abandon survivors a second time in their solitude of genocide, in their nightmare.

-Genocide survivor, Canada (Email, August 17, 2009)

…Some of these men and women [genocide survivors] would choose, if they had an option, to live without this constant challenge, if they could be in a new place, where they could mourn privately, cry it out and start a whole new life with whole new opportunities, of course with new challenges but not necessarily connected to genocide…

-Genocide survivor, Rwanda. (Email, August 13, 2009)

Psychological and Social Challenges Genocide Survivors Face and Violations of their Human Rights

Genocide survivors in Rwanda have great difficulty receiving refugee status and right of asylum to allow them to settle outside of the country. The standard reply that they receive when making queries about the possibility of immigrating to Europe, Canada, or the United States is that there is no longer persecution on the basis of ethnicity in Rwanda, and thus there is no legal merit to their request. It is true that there is no government sanctioned persecution on the basis of ethnicity in Rwanda today. However, social persecution, discrimination, marginalization, threats, and intimidation towards survivors of the 1994 genocide of the Tutsi prevail on a popular level amongst many Rwandans. Genocide survivors are targeted for physical and psychological torture and have been attacked and killed in various parts of the country.[i] Fifteen years after the genocide many lack physical and psychological security.[ii] (SURF Survivor’s Fund Annual Report, 2008)

For many survivors, remaining in Rwanda post-genocide poses insurmountable obstacles to their psychological health and well being. They are subject to flashbacks and continuous retraumatization. Many find themselves trapped in the fears prompted by their experiences, the sadness and pain, and the wounds that cannot heal because justice is so incomplete and because thousands of the perpetrators of the genocide have been freed leaving survivors feeling vulnerable and despondent that justice is not and will not be done.[iii]

All the years I have passed in Rwanda after surviving were not easy in many ways. All my world before the genocide was destroyed. I felt like a foreigner in my own country. The majority of suvivors, if not all were in emptiness of life. But for all loved ones we lost during the genocide we were called to be strong, for their memory, for history, for the future and for ourselves. I did my best, but one thing persists in my mind which reduces my efforts for surviving: in Rwanda, I’m always afraid. I like my country so much, I’m so attached to its vegetation, its hills, its climate, its beauty. But it’s not easy to enjoy all these when I think that among people whom I met on my way, there are some killers. When I return in my native city, I’m very frustrated while I meet those who were our neighbors, who participated in the genocide or who were just silent while my parents and friends were killed. I can’t stay in that city more than a day. The flashbacks come quickly while there. And then I remember everything.[iv] (Email, August 17, 2009.)

Long after genocide has ended, genocide survivors live with its consequences on a daily basis and its legacy impedes their ability to rebuild their lives.

The United Nations General Assembly has passed several resolutions acknowledging the vulnerabilities of Rwandan genocide survivors and the responsibility of the United Nations and its member states to assist and protect them. On December 25, 2005 the UN General Assembly passed Resolution 60/225, entitled, “Assistance to Survivors of the 1994 Genocide in Rwanda, Particularly Orphans, Widows, and Victims of Sexual Violence.”[v] This resolution was a reaffirmation of previous resolutions similarly calling for concrete actions to improve the quality of life of genocide survivors and ensure that their human rights are honored. Resolution 60/225 refers to resolution 59/137 of December 10, 2004 which requested that the Secretary General, “…encourage relevant agencies, funds, and programmes of the United Nations system to continue working with the Government of Rwanda to develop and implement programmes aimed at supporting vulnerable groups that continue to suffer from the effects of the 1994 genocide”.[vi] It expressed solidarity with genocide survivors and urged greater efforts to enable them to access and realize their human rights. It called upon UN member states to “provide assistance to genocide survivors and other vulnerable groups in Rwanda” and recognized “the numerous difficulties faced by survivors of the 1994 genocide in Rwanda, particularly the orphans, widows, and victims of sexual violence, who are poorer and more vulnerable as a result of the genocide.”[vii] The United Nations General Assembly voted again, for a third time, to endorse these previous statements on December 22, 2009.[viii]

Granting Right of Refuge and Resettlement to Genocide Survivors

As one way of actualizing both the content and spirit of these resolutions, member states of the UN in a position to accept genocide survivors for resettlement should enable genocide survivors to do so. In particular, the countries of the European Union, the United States and Canada should take the lead on these efforts. They are all positioned to accept refugees and all share responsibility for their failure to act to prevent the genocide, to stop the genocide once it started, and to assist genocide survivors once it ended. There are approximately 400,000 genocide survivors living in Rwanda today.[ix] Not all wish to resettle outside of Rwanda. Some have found themselves able to rebuild their lives and wish to remain in Rwanda. This is particularly true for those genocide survivors who have been able to access education and work opportunities, and who have been able to settle away from the communities in which they were persecuted and in Kigali, where they generally feel safer than in the countryside. But only a small number of genocide survivors have had these opportunities, and for most they are simply economically unfeasible. Still, for many survivors, remaining in Rwanda is too much to bear.

Many wish to settle outside of the country. The psychological scars that they carry are constantly exacerbated by being forced to live in close proximity to genocide perpetrators, tens of thousands of whom have been released from prison or received amnesties because the Rwandan government cannot afford to incarcerate them and has chosen to release them to promote ‘reconciliation.’[x] As one genocide survivor explained, “When I think of going back to live in Rwanda, it simply sounds to me as a nightmare. Psychologically I can’t stand living in the same villages with neighbors who killed all my family members and siblings.” (Email, August 17, 2009.) International human rights law should reflect and respect the human rights of genocide survivors. As it stands, there are no legally binding instruments that enable genocide survivors to claim asylum by virtue of having survived genocide and seeking to live away from their former persecutors and away from the society that betrayed them so violently.

At the very least, such a change to international law should provide a mechanism that guarantees right of resettlement to the most vulnerable and impoverished genocide survivors and to those coming from countries in which genocide was so wide-scale and wide spread that there is no place where they can settle that will not potentially compromise their psychological health and ability to rebuild their lives. It could take the form of a United Nations treaty or convention, an amendment to the UN 1948 Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of Genocide, or a resolution of the United Nations Security Council. International law takes years to develop and any effort to codify into current laws the rights of genocide survivors to asylum would doubtlessly be subject to lengthy negotiations and delays. Because it will likely take years of deliberations to amend international law and there may be little desire to do so, an alternative for the short term ought to be created: a voluntary program of resettlement for genocide survivors organized by nations willing to accept them as immigrants for humanitarian reasons.

Practical Challenges

The most practical way of initiating the process of providing genocide survivors with immigration rights is through partnership with the organizations founded and run by genocide survivors themselves to promote the rights and well being of genocide survivors. In Rwanda three of the main organizations providing services to large numbers of genocide survivors are: AVEGA which focuses on providing care for widows and female genocide survivors, Ibuka which serves as an umbrella organization that unites and coordinates all organizations providing support and advocating for genocide survivors, and AOCM, the association for orphans who survived the genocide. Together with the Rwandan government, a program for the resettlement of those genocide survivors who choose to live outside of Rwanda for reasons of personal safety and/or psychological health and well-being can be developed and implemented. It need not necessarily involve the United Nations nor must it be coordinated by a centralized bureaucratic structure which would only slow down the process of resettlement. Rather, each country that is able and willing to accept genocide survivors as immigrants, in whatever amount, can directly communicate this with the Rwandan government and the aforementioned genocide survivor organizations who would arrange the implementation of the immigration. They would match genocide survivors with the countries in which they wish to settle and in which they are most likely to acclimate with minimal difficulty due to criteria such as knowledge of the local language, relatives already living there, and other such factors that can ease resettlement. The rights and responsibilities of resettled genocide survivors would not necessarily fall under the category of ordinary asylum seekers/refugees and would need to be negotiated between the Rwandan government, genocide survivors and the organizations representing them, and the countries accepting them for resettlement.

The total number of potential survivors wishing to immigrate stands at roughly 400,000 individuals, although a significantly smaller number will likely seek to resettle outside of Rwanda. Immigration will likely need to be staggered over the course of several years. It is likely, also, that some countries such as the United States and Canada may choose to accept a disproportionate amount of genocide survivors as immigrants because of already well established Rwandan communities and a high demonstrated ability to absorb immigrants successfully and integrate them into society. Again, these decisions will need to be made on a state level and then negotiated in relation to the overall effort so that immigration is coordinated and no country accepts more survivors than it can successfully absorb. Survivors should be settled in large enough numbers that they can create their own support networks and build strong communities. Ideally then they would be settled in two or three cities in each country. In the United States, for example, 50,000 Somalians settled in Minneapolis, and were able in this way to build a community that would empower Somalians coming to the United States with few resources, minimal language skills, and a significant cultural gap. The same should be done for Rwandan immigrants so they are not scattered in small communities across the country without the possibility of intensive mutual support.

Every effort should be made to provide the survivors who experience the greatest vulnerability by remaining in Rwanda the opportunity to immigrate. However, this criterion will need to be balanced with pragmatic concern for their ability to transition to a drastically different society and culture and to acquire the skills needed to become financially independent. In terms of differentiating amongst the survivors, I recommend setting practical criteria for who would stand to benefit the most from immigration rights and be able to become economically self-sufficient within a reasonable period of time. Most likely teenage survivors and survivors in their twenties-forties would stand to benefit the most and best be able to take advantage of the opportunities offered by immigration to a Western country, both in terms of work and education. But wherever possible, they should be allowed to immigrate with surviving relatives, including older individuals – as transitioning to a new society without the support of what remains of one’s family is exceedingly difficult. Immigration of survivors should not cause families that have already suffered from loss and destabilization due to the genocide to be further fragmented.

Trauma of Genocide Survivors and the Positive Impact of Resettlement on Survivors
The testimony of Rwandan genocide survivors who have had the opportunity to resettle abroad reveals how this has enabled them to rebuild their lives and has restored their faith in the future. It indicates that resettlement is one pathway to rehabilitation and restorative justice for Rwandan genocide survivors.

Here in Canada, my adoption country, slowly by slowly I feel better. Sometimes, I’m afraid, but it is easy to be calm just when I ask myself: «Calm down, you’re not in Rwanda». Here, I’m rebuilding my life, with others in another society, with new friends. At the same time, I give my contribution to my two countries. Here I can have dreams, life projects in middle or long term, what was not necessarily easy while I was in Rwanda. Even if I had some projects in Rwanda, I was not sure if I will be in life tomorrow. (Email, August 17, 2009.)

Another survivor states,

My staying in North America has enabled me to recover from the bad memories since I live far away from where the genocide happened. On the other hand I feel very sorry for other survivors who stayed there, since they are under a serious threat of the genocide suspects and those who were released without judgment. (Email, August 17, 2009.)

For survivors the memory of the genocide is always fresh, it haunts them and living in Rwanda they have no respite from it. Because the genocide took place in almost every part of the country and on such a massive scale the presence of death and of evil, the reminder of the innocents killed is permanent, constant, and relentless. There is no place within Rwanda where a survivor can retreat to and feel him or herself far from the genocide. Wherever they may go in the country, in addition to their particular individual memories of the genocide they are confronted by the remains of the hundreds of thousands of others who were killed for being Tutsi.

Although some genocide survivors appreciate certain aspects of the communal justice system established by the Rwandan government, known as gacaca, many critique its leniency vociferously on both moral and practical grounds. The gacaca system enables genocide perpetrators to be freed with generally short prison sentences and sometimes no prison sentences at all, if confession is made and community service is done. Many survivors explain that the burden of reconciliation is placed on them, that they are asked and sometimes demanded to forgive perpetrators, and face enormous social pressures to do so and social ostracism, intimidation, and threats if they do not. They doubt the sincerity of perpetrators who claim in gacaca courts to have rejected their past actions, but who often make these statements simply as practical means to ensure a minimal prison sentence and freedom. They fear the perpetrators who are being released from prison, some of whom go on to kill genocide survivors. And they feel fundamentally alienated from their own land because of this combination of physical and psychological insecurity, and loss of faith in the willingness of the justice system to hold genocide perpetrators fully accountable for their murderous actions.

The consequences of the Genocide against Tutsis did not end when the killings stopped. Many of us still live with open wounds that are made even more painful by the indifference and non- repentance of those who carried out this genocide. While thousands marvel at the progress made in our country over the last 15 years, for so many of us, every street corner, a growing bush, every river, any given forest, brings back the memories of brutal murders and those of being hunted like an animal by your own neighbors of then and now. While for so much time, I have wanted to forgive, and for even a few moments, I am tempted to forget, the longing and hard struggle to achieve a reconciliation with those Rwandans who murdered and vanquished my loved ones; I am simply too close to the situation. I can still feel the pain they have inflicted me and they have no remorse or regret for what they have done. (Email, August 17, 2009.)

As these testimonies show, there is a strong demand and need for an alternative living arrangement for genocide survivors.

Survivors continue to insist that perpetrators of the genocide be punished for their crimes as a matter of justice, deterrence, and a break with the impunity of the past in which under a Hutu supremacist regime from 1959 – 1994 the murder of Tutsis was condoned and enabled by the government. Massacres of Tutsis took place frequently, roughly every ten years, and tens of thousands of innocent Tutsis, civilians, were murdered because of their ethnic identity. Bertrand Russell, as early as 1964, called one of these massacres which took place in 1963, “the most horrible and systematic massacre since the Holocaust.”[xi] Even though Rwanda’s gacaca system of communal justice has failed to provide the justice which many if not most survivors seek, as one survivor says, restorative justice for survivors can at least help them to heal some of their wounds and right the wrongs that have been done to them.

To some extent many Rwandan genocide survivors have resigned themselves to the fact that they will never see justice, that the people who killed their families and friends in 1994 will never get the punishment that they deserve. This however does not mean that survivors also have to live the rest of their lives in fear or with the psychological wounds that are inflicted whenever they step outside their houses to go to their farm, to draw water from a nearby river, to go school, to go church, to go anywhere. (Email, August 18, 2009)

The Obligation to Assist Survivors and Resettlement’s Potential Positive Impact on Rwanda

The United Nations, Europe, the United States and Canada and the entire international community failed the survivors and failed their family members and friends who were murdered in the genocide.[xii] It is time that they honestly ask themselves how they can best contribute to their well being. They should continue to support Rwanda’s development and accepting Rwandan genocide survivors as asylum seekers should not come at the expense of doing so. But they have a very particular obligation to each and every one who survived the genocide. They can offer them the possibility of a transformed life where they will not live under the shadow of their past experiences and subject to constant retraumatization. In enabling Rwandan genocide survivors to immigrate, the governments of each country accepting genocide survivors for resettlement should take care to provide them with adequate support. It is not enough to provide genocide survivors with immigration rights without acting with sensitivity to their unique needs and the immense challenges that they face because most have lost their family members and must confront the challenge of resettlement alone or with very few siblings and relatives. Support services that would likely be necessary include temporary housing and/or financial grants for housing, assistance with job applications, language and general educational programs, and the support of dedicated social workers. Governments accepting genocide survivors for resettlement may wish to apply a portion of their foreign aid/development budgets domestically to assist in meeting the costs associated with resettlement.

It is essential to acknowledge the efforts of the Rwandan government in supporting genocide survivors. Five percent of every annual budget is devoted to programs to support their needs.[xiii] However, its resources are intensely strained and it simply cannot afford to provide survivors with their basic needs because it does not have the budget to do so. Even with this level of support tens of thousands of genocide survivors find themselves without access to adequate shelter, nutritious meals, dependable healthcare, and a steady source of income. Many children and teenagers, numbering in the thousands, orphaned by the genocide cannot afford school fees and are thus denied an education because of their poverty and their lack of a family support network because they have lost their parents and relatives in the genocide.[xiv] In this way genocide survivors are further impoverished and marginalized and rendered unable to rebuild their lives and reconstitute their communities.

Even if the Rwandan government had the economic resources to assist survivors in meeting their needs there would still be many survivors who prefer not to remain in Rwanda because of the immense psychological stress and trauma this can entail. The Rwandan government cannot jail the thousands of Rwandans who were not directly implicated in acts of genocide but who were willing bystanders who looked aside or cheered as Tutsis were murdered and whose actions during the genocide and presence in Rwanda today haunt survivors. Even with the best of intentions there are limits to the extent to which the Rwandan government can help genocide survivors to realize their human rights to live in dignity and free of fear.

Building an extensive Rwandan diaspora ultimately will be of great benefit to all Rwandans. The remittances that survivors who establish themselves abroad will send home to those who remain in Rwanda will inject much needed capital in the Rwandan economy, and some will return to Rwanda to invest, create new businesses and employment opportunities, and to apply skills gained through education acquired abroad.[xv] Enabling genocide survivors to settle abroad then will ultimately not only empower survivors and promote their rehabilitation, it will also promote the development of Rwanda as well as foster positive relations between Rwanda and other nations. There is a Rwandan diaspora in countries like Canada, the United States, Belgium, and Britain. The local Rwandan community in these countries is well placed to welcome Rwandan genocide survivors and extend them support to enable them to integrate the society and to ease the inevitable strains that accompany immigrating to a new country and acculturating.

Why Rwandan Genocide Survivors?

This article focuses on the responsibility to offer genocide survivors the choice to claim asylum. Under no circumstances should they be required or pressured to do so. Such a decision must reflect their informed consent and be an autonomous choice reflecting their individual interests as they define them. Every human being has the right to dignity and the right to security. Living beside perpetrators of such human rights abuses is a violation of these rights and for many survivors constitutes a form of torment and exposes some to tortuous psychological and social conditions. This proposal focuses on Rwandan genocide survivors primarily because the situation of Rwandan genocide survivors is unique because, as noted earlier, of the small size of Rwanda and the enormous scale and scope of the genocide in virtually every part of the country. Consequently, Rwandan genocide survivors cannot be resettled within their own country away from perpetrators of the genocide, as the perpetrators literally live everywhere throughout the country. There are relatively few countries in which the size of the country and the scale and scope of the genocide creates such a universally traumatizing environment for genocide survivors. One survivor states,

Rwanda is our country. It is our mother land. It is where our existing History starts from. However it is also a world of sorrow. These people who did that [killed and tortured] to my family were released in 2006.I meet them every day. I am having lots of difficulties to even look at their faces. I feel bad when I try. It’s as if I am the one who did wrong to them. It’s for me to feel ashamed. But I don’t give much thought on that. I have to mind my own business. However, I imagine how deep sadness is for survivors that live in rural areas. Those who decided to keep silent and never hope that Justice be done to their loved ones, because in Gacaca courts, people are making fun of them when they say what they saw. They are treated like drunkards, or fools by the participants. Those who do that are their neighbors.The ones that will live with them forever. They do that because they want their family members to be released out from prisons. They want judges to never take into consideration the truth from these survivors. And survivors choose to become the supporters of the killers who made their families to perish. They cry in hidden places, by fear of what would be happen if they struggle for the memories of their loved ones. (Email, August 17, 2009)

Perhaps one of the most psychologically damaging aspects of being forced to live alongside perpetrators is the need to curry favor with them and to repress one’s own feelings in order to minimize the chance that perpetrators will try to harm you and at the same time, to suffer their mockery, indifference, and the cruelty of their continued sympathy for the genocide and for the genocidal ideology.

Conclusion

Genocide survivors have waited long enough. They are not reaping many of the benefits of the extensive development programs implemented by European and North American aid agencies in Rwanda.[xvi] The wishes of genocide survivors too often go unheard and so it is important that their voices are acknowledged and given opportunity to be shared in public. Every year in Rwanda delegates from European countries, the United States, Canada, other members of the international community, and the United Nations acknowledge in ceremonies the evil of the Rwandan genocide, its gross injustice, and its brutality. And then, after placing a wreath, writing words such as ‘Never Again’ in a memorial book, and speaking to the media, they leave. But the genocide survivors remain in Rwanda. None of these words, sentiments, and symbolic actions amount to a real attempt to address their human rights and needs.

If the United Nations and its member states believe that the genocide was wrong, if they acknowledge that they failed to prevent and stop it, then it is incumbent upon them to care for its survivors. If they fail to do so survivors will continue to suffer, perpetuating the legacy of the genocide. As these testimonies show, right of resettlement has a central role to play in restorative justice. There is no greater moral obligation, no clearer expression of human solidarity and compassion than to enable these genocide survivors to live in freedom and safety without fear and with their dignity honored and restored.

References:

Emails between the author and Rwandan genocide survivors who wish to remain anonymous. I was assisted in this effort by a survivor who also wishes to remain anonymous who reached out to a diverse group of genocide survivors and collected their testimonies in addition to ones I collected (many of which informed the article but are not directly quoted) during field research visits to Rwanda in 2008, 2009, and 2010. Some of the quotes were collected over the course of several weeks and then emailed to me in one email, without stating the exact date on which they were received. The dates I have listed are the dates on which I received the testimonies.

Email message to the author, August 13, 2009.

Email message to the author, August 17, 2009.

Email message to the author, August 19, 2009.

GETTLEMAN, Jeffrey. Back from the Suburbs to Run a Patch of Somalia. Available at http://www.nytimes.com/2009/10/03/world/africa/03somalia.html?scp=4&sq=Somalia&st=cse )

HATZFELD, Jean. (2007.) Life Laid Bare: The Survivors in Rwanda Speak. (New York: Other Press.)

HATZFELD, Jean. (2009.) The Antelope’s Strategy: Living in Rwanda After the Genocide. (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.)

MCVEIGH, Karen. Spate of Killings Obstructs Rwanda’s Quest for Justice. Available at http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2006/dec/03/rwanda.karenmcveigh.

MELVERN, Linda. (2009.) The Role of the West in the Rwandan Genocide. (London: Zed Books.)

MELVERN, Linda. The Mechanics of Genocide. New Humanist. Available at www.Newhumanist.org.uk (retrieved 24 October 2009).

REDRESS and African Rights Report, ‘Survivors and Post Genocide Justice in Rwanda.’

Available at,

http://www.redress.org/downloads/publications/Rwanda%20Survivors%2031%20Oct%2008.pdf

(retrieved February 15, 2010)

SURF Survivor’s Fund Annual Report 2008.

Available at, http://www.survivors-fund.org.uk/resources/reports/surf-reports.php

(retrieved 26 September 2009).

United Nations Resolution Adopted by the General Assembly. Available at http://www.undemocracy.com/A-RES-60-225/page_1 (retrieved 15 September 2009).

[1] Already 165 genocide survivors have been murdered in Rwanda by fellow Rwandans, many of whom face trials and are afraid of the punishments that will be meted out against then when genocide survivors testify that they were involved in the genocide. ‘Spate of Killings Obstructs Rwanda’s Quest for Justice. Available at, http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2006/dec/03/rwanda.karenmcveigh

[2] For more on the current situation of genocide survivors in Rwanda see The Antelope’s Strategy: Living in Rwanda After the Genocide by Jean Hatzfeld.

[3] See the report by Redress and African Rights entitled ‘Survivors and Post Genocide Justice in Rwanda.’ Available at <http://www.redress.org/downloads/publications/Rwanda%20Survivors%2031%20Oct%2008.pdf

[4]United Nations Resolution Adopted by the General Assembly. Available at http://www.undemocracy.com/A-RES-60-225/page_1 (retrieved 15 September, 2009).

[5] Ibid

[6] Ibid

[7] Ibid

[8] United Nations Press Release, (http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2009/ga10908.doc.htm)

[9] Surf’s Annual Report 2008, p. 1. Available at http://www.survivors-fund.org.uk/assets/docs/reports/surf-ar-2008.pdf (retrieved 20 October 2009)

[10] SURF Website, ‘Justice.’ Available at http://www.survivors-fund.org.uk/resources/reports/ar2008/justice.php and also p. 25 http://www.survivors-fund.org.uk/assets/docs/exhibition/surf-hereos-exhibition-web.pdf (retrieved 21 October 2009).

[11]‘The Mechanics of Genocide’ by Linda Melvern. New Humanist.Available at www.Newhumanist.org.uk (retrieved 24 October 2009).

[12]Linda Melvern. ‘The Role of the West in the Rwandan Genocide.’ London: Zed Books, 2009.

[13]‘Life for Survivors’ SURF Survivor’s Fund Report. Available at www.survivors-fund.org.uk/assets/docs/…/life-for-survivors-v01.pdf. (retrieved 22 September 2009).

[14]Surf’s Annual Report 2008. Available at http://www.survivors-fund.org.uk/assets/docs/reports/surf-ar-2008.pdf (retrieved 20 October 2009).

[15]For an example of how a member of the Somalian diaspora community is contributing to Somalia’s development see: ‘Back from the suburbs to run a patch of Somalia.’Available at
http://www.nytimes.com/2009/10/03/world/africa/03somalia.html?scp=4&sq=Somalia&st=cse) (retrieved on 4 October 2009).

[16]See the article in Development in Practice by Noam Schimmel entitled, “Failed Aid: How Development Agencies Are Neglecting and Marginalizing Rwandan Genocide Survivors” for a detailed account of how Rwandan genocide survivors are being overlooked by United Nations, multilateral, national, and international aid agencies and non-governmental organizations. Spring, 2010.

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