Mediation of peace agreements bringing an end to armed conflict has become increasingly popular since the end of the Cold War. In the context of armed conflict, mediation has been undertaken by states, non-governmental organisations, regional and international organisations, and even individuals. Until recently, international peace mediation was undertaken on an ad hoc basis and in the absence of formal guidelines. Recently, however, various attempts have been made to formalise and professionalise international peace mediation to a certain extent. The UN and EU have set up offices dedicated to mediation, non-governmental organisations have been branded as ‘mediation experts’ and have led and supported mediation processes in conflict zones and numerous sets of guidelines, seeking to guide and regulate mediators have been created. This paper analyses the theory and practice of international peace mediation, with a special focus on the codes of conduct which seek to direct these mediators.
It is the aim of this thesis to analyze the international humanitarian law which is
applicable to wars of national liberation and to discuss the protection afforded thereby
to both civilians and those involved in combat. Four chapters are presented that specifically address traditional international law; development of international humanitarian law through adoption of the Geneva Conventions; development of the principle of self-determination and the ‘internationalism’ of wars of national liberation; and the results of Protocol 1 regarding international conflict. This thesis ultimately seeks to illustrate that the international community has failed, despite the various provisions which could, in theory, apply to wars of national liberation, to properly implement the international humanitarian law in these types of conflicts.
- Transgression of Human Rights in Humanitarian Emergencies: The Case of Somali Refugees in Kenya and Zimbabwean Asylum-Seekers in South Africa
- Mapping Population Mobility in a Remote Context: Health Service Planning in the Whantoa District, Western Ethiopia
- One step forward, two steps back? Humanitarian Challenges and Dilemmas in Crisis Settings