At the end of its transition period, Burundi faces many issues that can undermine the peace process. This study tries to evaluate the impact of INGOs and the CSOs (civil society organizations) in Burundi and is based on field research conducted in the Great Lakes region – Uganda, Kenya, and especially Burundi- during the months of April and May 2004. Findings on the numbers and types of active INGOs and civil society organizations in Burundi was used to research the impact that these organizations had on the peace process and how they influenced the political process. It was concluded that the impact of INGOs and civil organizations on the peace process was rather limited. As a result of the findings, the author specifically formulates recommendations that can strengthen the action and the policy orientations of these organisations’ activities.
Lack of coordination (including lack of clarity over tasks and command and reporting lines), mutual unfamiliarity, and attitudinal divergence are the principal sources of stress between peacekeepers and aid workers. Nevertheless, Chapter VI mandates rarely give rise to difficulty over the reconciliation of objectives.
However, another issue has arisen with regard to some recent operations. It centres on the application of the principle that aid is provided on the basis of need only, and that it is provided impartially and neutrally. The principle is unexceptionable, and would be fully endorsed by all representatives of the international community. The trouble is, that in its application to the kinds of conflict which have arisen, especially in Bosnia and Croatia, what the humanitarian bodies excoriate as `linkage’ has appeared in various forms. For this, they tend to hold peacekeepers responsible.