Since 2001, The Gash Barka Zoba Administration and UNHCR have jointly carried out both on-ground works and capacity building activities for the provision and long-term supply of water to Eritrean returnees and their host communities. This paper presents the range the water supply projects and complementary capacity building activities implemented to date and those still needed for returnees. The need for continued and increased capacity building activities is highlighted in order to achieve the sustainable operation of water supply projects and the responsible management of groundwater resources for all beneficiaries. Constraints and lessons learnt from implementing and observing the operation of village/community supply projects are outlined along with recommendations to enhance and strengthen capacity building activities to maximize achieving ownership and sustainable operation of community water supply projects.
This paper is an attempt to establish a legitimate basis for humanitarian intervention in a world of nominally sovereign states. I do this from two perspectives. First, I examine the legal discussions regarding such intervention, and I argue that a norm of justified intervention can be found in the UN Charter, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and human rights covenants, as well as developing practice. Second, I examine the moral legitimacy of such actions. Specifically, I argue that beyond whatever basis may be present in international law for human rights and intervention to protect those rights, one can find a foundation for such rights in the very nature of the state system. Further, I argue that sovereignty cannot be a basis to prevent humanitarian intervention because the responsibilities which accrue to states mean that human rights must be seen as a part of the definition of sovereignty, rather than in opposition to it. In addition, within the concept of sovereignty, there is not only a right for the international community to violate international boundaries on behalf of human rights, but an obligation to do so.