The Pain Research, Education & Policy (PREP) program at Tufts University School of Medicine is GOING THE DISTANCE!
Since 1999 Tufts has had a unique program that trains leaders in pain research, education and policy. Our graduates have included nurses, physicians, dentists, physical therapists, nurse practitioners, physician’s assistants, pharmacists, researchers, holistic health practitioners, occupational therapists, massage therapists, social workers, hospice workers, health policy advocates, and other health care professionals.
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April 19th, 2012
by Pamela Katz Ressler, MS, RN, HN-BC, adjunct faculty Pain Research, Education and Policy Program (PREP) Tufts University School of Medicine, PREP-Aired blog moderator and administrator
The Pain Research, Education and Policy Program (PREP) will be hosting the WEGO Health health activists Twitter Chat on March 13, 3 PM EDT (#HAchat). We are thrilled to be sitting around the virtual table with health professionals, caregivers, health activists and advocates to discuss the important issue of chronic pain. To participate in the chat you will need a Twitter account, then join us at this link: tweetchat.com/room/HAchat#
Here are some interesting (and alarming) statistics about chronic pain (note that these statistics do not include pediatric pain).
From MA Pain Initiative survey (2010)
- 1 out of 4 adults in Massachusetts suffers from persistent pain, interfering with daily life/work for at least some of the time.
- Among minorities, 42% reported persistent pain
From Institute of Medicine Report on Chronic Pain (2011)
- Chronic pain (pain lasting more than 3 months) affects an estimated 116 million American adults—more than the total affected by heart disease, cancer, and diabetes combined.
- Pain also costs the U.S. up to $635 billion each year in medical treatment and lost productivity.
Pain was previously described as a symptom of another disease and was treated as such. However this definition has been proven to be very narrow. The Institute of Medicine now describes pain as a public health issue, affecting the health of the society as well as the individual. This is a call to action for health activists and advocates to educate themselves to work toward better and more comprehensive pain management.
Here are some helpful websites to learn more about the multiple dimensions of pain:
Want to learn more about the Pain Research, Education and Policy Program at Tufts University Medical School? Did you know that we are the first and only multidisciplinary pain program in the country? Did you know that we welcome both clinicians and health advocates and activists to our program? Did you know that you can take a course without being a matriculated student? Contact Wendy Williams (Wendy.Williams@tufts.edu), Associate Director of the Tufts Pain Research, Education and Policy Program to discuss how you can make a difference in the treatment of pain.
March 13th, 2012
by Pamela Katz Ressler, RN, MS-PREP, HN-BC, adjunct faculty Pain Research, Education and Policy (PREP) program at the Tufts University School of Medicine, and moderator of the PREP-Aired Blog
Can diet be a tool in our pain management arsenal? According to McGill professor and researcher, Dr. Yoram Shir the answer is yes. The Pain Research, Education and Policy Program (PREP) was honored to host Dr. Shir on February 9, 2012 and hear about his fascinating research on the association of pain and diet. Dr. Shir, director of the Alan Edwards Pain Management Unit at McGill University Health Centre, related that moving his lab from Israel to the United States created an unexpected opportunity to study the effect of different standard diets on pain in animal models (lab rats). The combination of type of protein as well as type of fat suggested an influence on pain in the animals studied.
Exploring the observation of a correlation between diet and pain, Dr. Shir began testing various combinations of protein and fat. Interestingly, a diet high in soy protein and omega-3 fatty acids appeared to inhibit pain, while a diet rich in canola oil appeared to increase the pain response. Small pilot studies with human subjects, those suffering from neuropathic pain, have been promising, but larger studies will be needed to further generalize the findings.
The Pain Research, Education and Policy program thanks Dr. Shir for sharing with us his exciting research in diet and pain.
February 27th, 2012
by Pamela Katz Ressler, RN, MS-PREP, HN-BC, adjunct faculty Pain Research, Education and Policy Program, Tufts University School of Medicine, PREP-Aired blog moderator
On February 2, 2012, at sites around the world, a remarkable documentary will be premiered. LIFE Before Death seeks to raise awareness of the global issue of untreated and under-treated pain and the lack of adequate access to palliative care.
Dr. Dan Carr, director and founder of the Pain Research, Education and Policy Program (PREP) within Tufts Public Health recently commented on the selection of the Tufts’ PREP program as one of the U.S. movie screening locations, and global issue of pain relief as a human right. “PREP is honored to be one of the sites at which this remarkable film will be premiered worldwide. Sponsored by international pain relief and anti-cancer organizations, LIFE Before Death presents a moving, sobering and ultimately inspiring picture of courage amidst suffering. Tragically, much of the suffering at the end of life documented in this film in emerging economies is the unnecessary consequence of the unavailability of morphine and other inexpensive, effective medications. In first-world countries, patients are caught within health systems whose major goal is curbing prescription drug abuse. At a time when access to pain control is seen as a human right, this film appropriately pushes us out of our comfort zone”, stated Dr. Carr.
As emphasized by Dr. Carr, the issue of pain control in emerging global economies is immense. Global health organizations have estimated that more than 3.3 million individuals die with untreated moderate or severe pain form cancer and HIV each year (2009 WHO and UN Narcotics Control Board). Advocacy for adequate pain and palliative care is essential, concurred Carol Curtiss, MSN, RN-BC, a palliative care expert and adjunct faculty member of the PREP program. Ms. Curtiss stated, “Unrelieved pain and other distressing symptoms are challenges to quality of life, yet millions of people worldwide do not have access to expert care, basic pain medications and the other essential resources. Through viewing this film, LIFE Before Death, I hope participants will acquire or renew their passion to advocate for changes in policy, education and research that will make access to pain and palliative care a reality for people who experience life-threatening illnesses. For me, this film reaffirms what I’ve learned over the years by working with colleagues in developing countries and in clinical practice here – we have much more work to do to assure that individuals everywhere have the right to effective pain management and palliative care throughout their lives. In the U.S., we are facing difficult times dealing with misuse and diversion of medications. We MUST be sure that people with pain have access to evidence-based pain management and palliative care in the U.S. and around the world.”
Join together with clinicians, educators, policy makers, advocates and activists who believe that pain relief is a human right for the Tufts’ PREP screening of LIFE Before Death on Thursday, February 2 from 3:00-5:15 PM at the Wolff Auditorium at Tufts Medical Center. The Tufts’ screening will be introduced by nationally syndicated health columnist, Judy Foreman and followed by a panel discussion with pain and palliative care experts.
Click here for more information
LIFE Before Death Movie Trailer
January 30th, 2012
by Pamela Katz Ressler, MS-PREP, RN, HN-BC, adjunct faculty Pain Research, Education and Policy Program, Tufts University School of Medicine, PREP-Aired Blog moderator
Jessica Peck, MAc, LAc, MS-PREP candidate presented her capstone research project on December 9, 2011 to a group of students, faculty members and invited guests at the Tufts University School of Medicine. Jessica initiated an ambitious, ongoing study for her capstone project which is being conducted at the Maine Medical Center’s Palliative and Supportive Care Clinic. The focus of her pilot research study is the implementation and evaluation of the feasibility of using acupuncture plus standard care to treat pain and associated symptoms in cancer patients. Jessica will continue to work with her capstone preceptor, Dr. Lauren Michalakes, Director of Palliative Care at Maine Medical Center as her study progresses.
Congratulations, Jessica, for embracing the collaborative nature of the Pain Research, Education and Policy Program by creating a working partnership between eastern and western models of health care.
Jessica Peck and NESA's Amy Hull
January 6th, 2012
by Pamela Katz Ressler, MS-PREP, RN, HN-BC, adjunct faculty Pain Research, Education and Policy Program, Tufts University School of Medicine and PREP-Aired blog moderator
As has been discussed previously in this blog, the under-treatment of chronic or persistent pain places an enormous burden on individuals, the health care system, the economy and our society. In June 2011, the Institute of Medicine reported that there are an estimated 116 million individuals in the United states who report chronic pain, at an economic cost of $635 billion per year. According to a recent article by Matthew Brady in the magazine of the site, Angie’s List, (which reviews numerous categories of service and health care providers;) “health care providers in the pain management category garner negative reviews at twice the average of other Angie’s List categories” Additionally, Angie’s List members reported that their “health care provider didn’t take their problem with pain seriously”.
While reports of patient dissatisfaction with chronic pain management are disturbing, they are understandable when one recognizes the paucity of training most clinicians receive in chronic pain management. According to the Association of American Medical Colleges less than 1 in 4 of the 133 accredited medical schools in the country teach students about chronic pain management and most students receive less than 11 hours of pain management training in their entire 4 years of medical school.
Addressing the systemic lack of comprehensive pain education is a key mission of the Tufts University School of Medicine’s Pain Research, Education and Policy Program (PREP). The founding director of the PREP program, Dr. Dan Carr, states that the high level of dissatisfaction and complaints among patients seeking effective chronic pain management may reflect the traditional training of clinicians to focus only on objective measures and procedures to alleviate pain, without regard to the social and psychological aspects of persistent pain. “There is an enormous social component to pain,” states Dr. Carr. “Patients will be more satisfied if they feel they have been cared for. That has more to do with their satisfaction with pain control than the actual intensity of their pain.”
While there are no easy answers to chronic pain management; patients, clinicians, educators and health care stakeholders all agree that our current approach to pain management is inadequate and needs to be addressed as we prepare to meet the increasing health needs of an aging baby-boomer population.
What are your thoughts on how we can create a more comprehensive model of chronic pain management?
December 8th, 2011
by Pamela Katz Ressler, MS-PREP, RN, HN-BC, adjunct faculty Pain Research Education and Policy Program (PREP), Tufts University School of Medicine, and PREP-Aired blog moderator
Social media forums and online communities surrounding health topics are prevalent on the Internet. The most frequent reason individuals seek medical care is pain; so it is not surprising that there are numerous of active pain-related online communities. Most of these communities are focused on pain conditions, treatment, advocacy and support of the individual living with chronic, persistent pain. In contrast to the robust nature of these pain-related online communities for patients and advocates, there has been a paucity of similar online communities for pain researchers and investigators. The sharing of information and relevant research surrounding the complex nature of persistent pain has historically been relegated to periodic academic conferences and print publications researchers. However, that may now be changing with the development of the Pain Research Forum. Launched in June 2011 by the Harvard NeuroDiscovery Center and Massachusetts General Hospital’s Science Collaboration Foundation, the Pain Research Forum seeks to speed the translation of scientific knowledge into novel pain therapies by fostering the collaborative nature of an online community and by raising interest in pain research to a wider audience.
We in the Pain Research, Education, and Policy Program (PREP) at Tufts University School of Medicine applaud the collaborative nature of the Pain Research Forum and look forward to participating in this important pain research-based online community.
November 9th, 2011
by Pamela Katz Ressler, MS-PREP, RN, HN-BC, adjunct faculty member Pain Research, Education and Policy Program (PREP) Tufts University School of Medicine, PREP-Aired blog moderator and administrator
The Tufts Pain Research, Education and Policy Program congratulates Dr. Harris Berman on his recent appointment to the position of Dean of the Tufts University School of Medicine. Dr. Berman, a visionary leader in providing healthcare to populations, has a keen interest in the intersection of public health and medicine. In a recent interview in Tufts Now, Dr. Berman discussed his belief that public health should be a part of medicine, an integral part of how we care for the health of our population. Dr. Berman’s interest in population health and prevention began as a Peace Corps physician in India and continued into his leadership roles of healthcare organizations and academia.
The Tufts Pain Research Education and Policy Program began in 1999 when Dr. Berman held the position of Chair of Tufts’ Department of Public Health and Family Practice (as it was then known). A fellow visionary regarding pain as a public health concern, he welcomed PREP into that department where it has been happily housed ever since, now under the Dean of Public Health and Professional Degree Programs, Dr. Aviva Must.
As we, in the Pain Research, Education and Policy Program move forward in our efforts to address the immense burden of pain globally, we are pleased to have Dr. Harris Berman at the helm of the Tufts University School of Medicine.
October 13th, 2011
by Pamela Katz Ressler, MS-PREP, RN, HN-BC, Adjunct Faculty, PREP Program, Tufts University School of Medicine, PREP-Aired blog administrator and moderator
The Pain Research Education and Policy Program at Tufts University School of Medicine educates thought leaders in the multidisciplinary area of pain. This is evident by the efforts of two PREP program graduates, one a current Tufts PREP program faculty member and the other a practicing acupuncturist, through their collaborative research concerning endometrial pain and acupuncture. PREP graduates, Ewan McNichol and Kindreth Hamilton, along with co-author Xiaoshu Zhu, recently published a systematic intervention review; Acupuncture for Pain in Endometriosis in the Cochrane Library. In this systematic review, twenty-four studies were identified that involved acupuncture for endometriosis. One trial, enrolling 67 participants, met all the inclusion criteria. The authors concluded: “The evidence to support the effectiveness of acupuncture for pain in endometriosis is limited, based on the results of only a single study that was included in this review. This review highlights the necessity for developing future studies that are well-designed, double-blinded, randomized controlled trials that assess various types of acupuncture in comparison to conventional therapies.”
The PREP program applauds our graduates for their continued thought leadership surrounding the global issues of pain research, education and policy.
September 21st, 2011
by Daniel B. Carr, MD, FABPM, FFPMANZCA (Hon.), Co-Founder and Director of the Pain Research, Education and Policy Program (PREP) at the Tufts University School of Medicine
Each year, September is “Pain Awareness Month” – a time of intense activity for PREP faculty and the entire pain community It is also when PREP’s academic year begins. One key insight connects diverse Pain Awareness activities and PREP’s own vision and mission: PAIN IS A PUBLIC HEALTH ISSUE, AND PAIN EDUCATION IS A PUBLIC HEALTH IMPERATIVE. Now is a perfect time to step back and place some context around this idea at the heart of not only PREP’s curriculum, but also our entire approach to interprofessional education.
The report issued by the Institute of Medicine earlier this summer – “Relieving Pain in America: A Blueprint for Transforming Prevention, Care, Education and Research” (ref 1) — is the latest in a series of white papers on pain by governmental and professional groups dating back well over two decades. These include the first US federal clinical practice guideline (ref 2) on any topic, numerous international guidelines (ref 3), and white papers from authoritative sources such as the Mayday Fund (ref 4), the American Academy of Pain Medicine (ref 5), and even the World Health Organization (ref 6). Together, they present steadily accumulating evidence that acute, chronic and cancer-related pain are widely prevalent and exact a major economic and human burden in developed nations and even more so in resource-poor countries. Other common themes include lost opportunities for early intervention to control or prevent the transition from acute to chronic pain, the negative outcomes of undertreated pain, the importance of optimal pain control for patient-centered care, disparities in pain assessment and treatment experienced by minorities and other under-represented groups such as women or those at the extremes of age, and the need “to adopt a population-level prevention and management strategy” (ref 1) for pain. Related to all these is the growing perspective that pain control is a fundamental human right (ref 7) as articulated by Human Rights Watch (ref 8 ) and recently affirmed in the 2010 Declaration of Montreal by delegates to the International Pain Summit (ref 9).
Since its inception in 1999, the Tufts program on pain research, education and policy has been housed in its Department of Public Health and Community Medicine. Although the pain community has long held a consensus that pain is a biopsychosocial phenomenon, most prestigious journal articles and a majority of research funding have emphasized the “bio” end of that word. Thus, the classical Loeser model of pain originates in subcellular nociceptive machinery, then broadens to encompass the experiences of pain and suffering, followed by pain behavior. The Loeser model is an intrinsically individual one.
- (Fig 1. Loeser Model used with permission of Professor John Loeser)
Our program’s framing of pain employs a sociobiological perspective, in keeping with our having been co-founded by a PhD sociologist, Kathy Lasch. Those individuals better able to detect and remember threats to their survival have better odds of propagating their DNA within the collective gene pool. Indeed, within Darwin’s (and more recently, Dawkins’s) “selfish gene” framework, individuals are mere vessels through which genes propagate themselves (ref 10). Whether or not we agree with this view, it sets the stage for interesting discussion by shifting our reference frame to a distinctly supraindividual model of pain. According to PREP’s social model, the experience of pain is still at the core, but to understand it requires research that goes beyond the individual. In human society, research is lost if not translated into education – particularly one that embraces the intersubjective, social and emotional nature of the pain experience. We at PREP are committed to interprofessional education of pain leaders as the most effective way to effect social change – a commitment that led to our program’s specific acknowledgment in the IOM report in its chapter 4, on education. Among recent PREP graduates and applicants we are beginning to see a few exceptional persons who have chosen to spend their careers as policymakers in the important field of pain. I am delighted to see this, because the continuous translation of the benefits of research and education requires ongoing support through enlightened, population-based health policies.
- Fig 2. PREP model
1: Institute of Medicine Report (2011) http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=13172
2: AHCPR clinical practice guideline: acute pain (1992) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK16501/
3: Carr, DB .”The Development of National Guidelines for Pain Control: Synopsis and Commentary”, European Journal of Pain (2001), 5 (Suppl. A) p. 91-98.
4: “A Call to Revolutionize Chronic Pain Care in America: An Opportunity in Health Care Reform”, Mayday Fund (2009) http://www.maydaypainreport.org/docs/A%20Call%20to%20Revolutionize%20Chronic%20Pain%20Care%20in%20America%2003.04.10.pdf
5: Dubois, MY, Gallagher, RM, Lippe, PM. “Pain Medicine Position Paper”, Pain Medicine, vol. 10, issue 6, p. 972-1000, Sept 2009. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1526-4637.2009.00696.x/full
6: World Health Organization press release (Oct 11, 2004) http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/releases/2004/pr70/en/index.html
7: Brennan, F, Carr, DB, Cousins, M. “Pain Management: A Fundamental Human Right”, Anesthesia & Analgesia, vol. 105, no. 1, p. 205-221, July 2007. http://www.anesthesia-analgesia.org/content/105/1/205.full.pdf+html
8: Human Rights Watch 2009 report http://www.hrw.org/reports/2009/03/02/please-do-not-make-us-suffer-any-more-0
9: Declaration of Montreal 2010 from International Pain Summit http://www.iasp-pain.org/Content/NavigationMenu/Advocacy/DeclarationofMontr233al/default.htm
10: Carr, DB; “What Does Pain Hurt?”, IASP — Pain Clinical Updates, vol. XVIII, issue 3, p. 1-6, July 2009 http://www.iasp-pain.org/AM/AMTemplate.cfm?Section=HOME&TEMPLATE=/CM/ContentDisplay.cfm&SECTION=HOME&CONTENTID=9599
September 1st, 2011