In the figures in the previous post, the level of defense spending is shown. It rises but not as much as the overall government spending, and hardly at all as a percentage of GDP. Let us examine those figures more closely—with the caveats that post-2006 defense spending estimates are subject to big margin of error, and in both Sudan and South Sudan, there is also major spending on security, police forces and off-budget arms procurement.

In absolute terms, the CPA brought a massive expansion in military spending in north and south.

Figure 1: Defense spending in Sudan and South Sudan
6 Graph 1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: World Bank data sets

But the rapid economic growth of this period meant that, defense spending did not actually increase as a percentage of GDP. For the Government of Sudan (Khartoum), it fluctuated between 1% and 4%. If we add in the extra spending by the Government of Southern Sudan for 2005-11, it rose to between 5% and 6%.

Figure 2: Defense spending as a proportion of GDP
6 Graph 2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: World Bank data sets

Figure 3: Comparative defense spending, East Africa, as % GDP
6 Graph 3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source: World Bank data sets

The general guideline for sustainable defense spending in Africa is approximately 2% of GDP. We can see that Sudan, South Sudan and Uganda have been well above this level.

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