This posting examines the paradoxes of the 2000s: the decade of Sudan’s prosperity and hopes for peace. The key peace agreements: the 2002 “Burgenstock” ceasefire for the Nuba Mountains and the Machakos Protocol, the 2003-04 Protocols signed in Naivasha and Nairobi, the 2005 CPA itself, the 2006 Juba Declaration, the Abuja Darfur Peace Agreement and the Eastern Sudan Peace Agreement, were all signed during the fastest period of budgetary expansion.Continue Reading →
This is not just a difference in wealth. It points to very different ways in which governance is organized in different parts of Sudan. The difference between the ordered landscape of the Gezira and the organic landscape of the savanna is more-or-less coterminous with the colonial distinction between the riverain regions that received investment, and the “closed districts” that served as labor reserves and areas in which the “native administration” system of tribal chiefs was imposed.Continue Reading →
Khartoum’s urban infrastructure shows the impact of the boom-and-bust cycle. Below is a street photograph from central Khartoum. Note the unfinished buildings: they have been that way since the late 1970s. What happened was that the Nimeiri government borrowed recklessly, causing a boom, that came to an abrupt halt in 1978. Many half-finished buildings from [...]Continue Reading →
In this series of ten posts, I will use graphs, figures and pictures to get a sense of the Sudanese predicament today. The focus is on peace, and especially the economic and financial logic of peace.
The following figure shows government budgets (current expenditure) between 1970 and 2011, and peace agreements (green) and changes in [...]Continue Reading →
The geographical inequality of income and investment in Sudan is striking. The figure below was drawn by me in the 1980s, based on an analysis of how the Sudanese economy had been restructured in the late 1970s and ‘80s, following the migration of most Sudanese professionals to the Gulf countries, and their remittances sent home, [...]Continue Reading →
Below is an excerpt from Alex de Waal’s essay, “Violence and peacemaking in the political marketplace” in Legitimacy and Peace Processes: from Coercion to Consent (Accord 25); pgs. 17 – 21. Full text available online.
The implication is the starting point for a legitimate process, leading to a legitimate agreement, is enabling the affected [...]Continue Reading →
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