UEP Student Jamie Fanous at the MA Urban Farming Conference
| May 17, 2016 | 10:13 am | Events | Comments closed
UEP Student Jamie Fanous

UEP Student Jamie Fanous

The 4th Annual Urban Farming Conference (UFC) was a full day event comprised of interactive panels, workshops, and discussion addressing a vast number of topics related to urban farming. The UFC brought together multi-sectoral stakeholders such as farmers, land trust managers, policy makers, innovators, activists, investors, and many others, to discuss barriers and opportunities for the urban farming community. The UFC provides a forum which cultivates opportunities for networking, information sharing, and innovation.

Speakers included local urban farmers, environmentalists, educators, government representatives, and activists. The keynote speaker Greg Watson from the Schumacher Center presented on the Cuban Urban Agroecology Movement, discussing the history of Cuba and why they currently have such a vast urban farming system. Discussion panels were held throughout the day focusing on various subjects including beekeeping, food justice, and soil management. A discussion which I attended, entitled, “Thinking Outside the Raised Bed” included a panel of urban farmers and city planners. The discussion focused on how to engage your community in urban farming, the panel discussed the barriers they face when engaging youth, specifically youth from minority and low-income communities. Overall the UFC was a successful conference fueling new ideas and paths forward for the urban farming community.

UEP Co-hosts Leaders for Land and Food Sovereignty from Brazil and Honduras
| May 16, 2016 | 12:33 pm | Uncategorized | 3 Comments
From L-R: Jovanna Garcia Soto (Grassroots International), Yasmin Lopez (Via Campesina), Debora Nunes (MST), Lydia Simas (Grassroots International), Saulo Araujo (Why Hunger)

From L-R: Jovanna Garcia Soto (Grassroots International), Yasmin Lopez (Via Campesina), Debora Nunes (MST), Lydia Simas (Grassroots International), Saulo Araujo (Why Hunger)

On March 31, 2016, Tufts UEP co-hosted a dialogue with Debora Nunes Lino Da Silva, a leader with Brazil’s Landless Workers Movement (MST), and Yasmin Lopez, a leader of the Women’s Regional Commission of La Vía Campesina–Central America, based in Honduras. More than 60 Tufts students and community members from Greater Boston attended this evening event at Tufts downtown campus, which was co-hosted by Grassroots International, Why Hunger, and Friends of MST. The evening began with a mistica (tribute and reflection) to Berta Caceres, a Honduran environmental and human rights activist who was assassinated in March.

Mystica tribute and reflection for Berta Caceres

Mystica tribute and reflection for Berta Caceres

With interpretation in Spanish, Portuguese, and English, Nunes and Lopez talked about their movement work in Brazil and Honduras. In Brazil, the MST (Movimento dos Trabalhadores Rurais Sem Terra) has been reclaiming rural land and building communities based on cooperative and solidarity economics. Since 1984, they have settled more than 370,000 families on more than 7.5 million hectares of land, where they have built agricultural cooperatives, schools, and health care facilities. Their current struggles center around countering the efforts to take down the democratically elected government.

La Via Campesina is a global social movement led by landless peasants, small scale farmers, women, indigenous people, and migrant workers from around the world. Lopez spoke about how people are taking over land to implement small-scale sustainable agriculture to promote food sovereignty and social justice. In the dialogue, one attendee who now lives in the Boston area shared the story of how his friend, a fellow Brazilian immigrant, had gotten involved in one of MST’s land settlements before moving to the US. Though he had to leave Brazil, family members who remained are now settled on and farming the reclaimed land. This story highlighted one theme throughout the evening about the need for building solidarity and ties across global communities.

This event was also sponsored by Tufts ASE Diversity Fund, Tufts New Economy, Tufts Friedman School’s Agriculture, Food, and Environment Program, Tufts Latin American Studies, and Tufts Portuguese Program.

UEP Student Allie Platt Reflects on Thesis Research in India
| May 13, 2016 | 10:42 am | Uncategorized | Comments closed

Before beginning my degree at Tufts I spent seven months in India and Southeast Asia. I returned with looming questions about the cultural and economic differences that exist between the East and the West. However, through my UEP courses such as Economics, Food Justice, and Cities I was equipped with tools to process and cope with some of my traveling experiences. For example, terms such as the Gini Coefficient and Purchasing Power helped me to understand the contrast between the value of a rupee and a dollar, without feeling guilty for everything that I bought in the United States.

While studying at Tufts, I remained in contact with the management of the farm where I had volunteered (WWOOFed) on my travels. In January I returned to India to pursue an internship with their organization, TGGFCT, and conduct field work for my thesis research topic (A Sustainable Livelihood Assessment), in which I was able to put to practical use some of the tangible skills and concepts I have gained since starting my degree.

During my internship, I lived on a beautiful organic permaculture farm learning and participating in the harvest of ginger, black pepper, arecanut, and coffee. I was also able to work in their office location, helping to strategize the future charitable activities and economic development initiatives they were planning, particularly aimed to support women entrepreneurship. Some challenges I faced while working with the organization were mainly related to cultural differences. Due to heavily steeped cultural practices that stem from the caste system, it could often feel like there was a divide between members of the farm and the organization management. It is very common in India for those who fall lower on the hierarchical spectrum to eat after those above. Working with the TGGFCT, most of the time this took the form of agricultural workers, particularly the women, eating after everyone else. Women are also the only ones who do the dishes, as men will almost never do their own. This often times upset me, and I was motivated to question my supervisor about some of the everyday customs related to daily life on the farm and in the office. Before approaching him regarding some of these topics, I often thought of the negotiations course I took at UEP, knowing that I did not want to shy away from asking difficult questions while upholding a positive and respectful discourse. He always encouraged me to “push the boundaries” and ask workers to join our meals, however they almost always indicated that they felt uncomfortable with doing this.

I was struggling with the boundary between cultural differences and injustice in many instances, until I was joined by Varnika, a Natural Resource Management masters student from Delhi. Interning with Varnika was probably the most valuable and rewarding part of my experience with TGGFCT. Throughout the month we became quite close sharing a room and hundreds of stories about our strikingly different backgrounds and cultures and bonding over our similar values and interests. I was able to ask her some of the questions about India’s customs, their historical origins, and current repercussions for women in particular, from someone of a native (albeit still privileged) perspective – rather than my American influenced and biased opinions. While many of the practices that seem to be impractical from my perspective still exist on the farm, they far exceed what I know to be some of the harsh realities and lived experiences of many within India. It is changing bit by bit, and I have full faith that some of the questions and discussion that took place on the farm during my time there had an effect, and am even more convinced of the power and importance of cultural exchanges.

UEP helps launch Greater Boston Community Land Trust Network
| May 11, 2016 | 12:34 pm | Events, student papers | Comments closed
Greater Boston Community Land Trust Launch Event, April 27, 2016

Greater Boston Community Land Trust Launch Event, April 27, 2016

UEP Lecturer Penn Loh and UEP Field Project students have been partnering to support the Greater Boston Community Land Trust Network. Loh was interviewed about community land trusts on Boston Neighborhood Network News on April 20, 2016. A report by a UEP Field Project student team was released at the Network’s launch on April 27, 2016. The report outlines the potential benefits of community land trusts in Boston and policy recommendations for the City. The Network is facilitated by the Dudley Street Neighborhood Initiative and includes Chinatown Community Land Trust, City Life/Vida Urbana, The Coalition for Occupied Homes in Foreclosure (COHIF), Dudley Neighbors, Inc., Mattapan United, New England United for Justice, The Urban Farming Institute, Greater Bowdoin/Geneva Neighborhood Association, Alternatives for Community and Environment and Boston Tenant Coalition.

UEP Alumni Panel and Networking Event
| May 5, 2016 | 1:10 pm | Events, SPA | Comments closed

UEP has been busy in the last week, hosting two alumni events over the weekend. The first was an alumni panel featuring UEPers that are now working in global operations, research and consulting.

  • Screen Shot 2016-05-05 at 12.25.51 PMDenise Chin (MA 2014) –  Senior Research Assistant at the Director General’s Office at the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)
  • Jon Crowe (MA 2010) – Senior Consultant at Meister Consultants Group
  • Armando Milou (MA 2008, WSSS) – GIS Specialist with the International Finance Corporation
  • Nicholas Petschek (MA/MALD 2012) – Senior Consultant in Governance, Culture & Leadership at LRN
  • Katie Walsh (MA/MALD 2014) – Cities Manager for the Carbon Disclosure Project (CDP)

    Alumni Panel: Working in Global Operations, Research and Consulting

    Networking before the Alumni Panel: Working in Global Operations, Research and Consulting

Alumni briefly discussed their work and career trajectories since graduating from UEP before responding to questions from the audience. Discussion followed on how UEP prepared them for their careers, opportunities they wish they would have taken advantage of while there, and how they see the next few years of their work playing out. Students in the audience asked about the UEP network in their fields and the language skills required in their work. Alumni unanimously agreed that Negotiations was one of the most important classes they had taken. They also recommended taking diverse courses, including branching out to other schools in the area.

Alumni Networking Event at Vanderbilt Kitchen & Bar

Alumni Networking Event at Vanderbilt Kitchen & Bar

The next day was a more informal networking event put together by the UEP Student Planning & Policy Association. Current students and alumni convened at Vanderbilt Kitchen & Bar near State Street where a crowd of 50 or so discussed careers and opportunities. There was a good showing from class of 2015 graduates, as well as a number from previous years. Folks enjoyed a buffet and drinks while expanding the career opportunities of the UEP network in Boston and elsewhere.

Sacred Rice: Environmental Change and Structural Uncertainty in West Africa
| May 1, 2016 | 2:03 pm | Tufts Environmental Studies Department | Comments closed

This week’s Tufts Environmental Studies Lunch & Learn was a presentation by Boston University anthropologist Joanna Davidson on her work in rice farming communities in Guinea Bissau. Her book, Sacred Rice, looks at the intricacies of economic and environmental conditions affecting the Jola people. Davidson spent over ten years studying rice cultivation in rural Guinea Bissau and the way rice has shaped the worldview and way of life of the people there.

Joanna Davidson: Sacred Rice

Joanna Davidson: Sacred Rice

Guinea Bissau is a nation of 1.5 million people and 23-27 different ethnic groups. The geography of the country is mostly flat mangrove swampland. There isn’t even a word for mountain in the Jola language. This terrain has made it ideal for palm oil forests and rice paddies. Cultivation of the Oryza glaberrima species began in West Africa, distinct from the rice species grown in Asia, with a higher protein content. Rice gave rise to many of the precolonial African kingdoms, and it is thought that American rice cultivation began only after the slave trade brought rice farmers to the Americas. Since the earliest times, Jola life has depended on rice. The people believe that they were created to farm rice, and their hard work in the rice paddies is part of a covenant with their supreme deity for which they are rewarded with rain. Since the mid 90s, however, the long June to October rainy season that they depend on has shortened to one or two months. As a result, many Jola families don’t have enough rice to last them through the year.

The blame can be laid partially on climate change, but is also the result of centuries of shifting lifeways. During the colonial era, Europeans forced farmers to switch to cash crops like sugar and tobacco for international trade rather than domestic subsistence. More recently, shifts toward urbanization mean that there are fewer people farming rice. Jola farmers have largely responded by simply working harder and longer. According to Davidson, much of this burden falls on Jola women. Seeing rice farming as a dead end long-term, families now send their children to be schooled in the capital city rather than train them in cultivation.

Source: http://www.navvi.com/blog/2015/1/23/how-can-the-countries-hardest-hit-by-ebola-avoid-a-potential-food-security-crisis

Source: http://www.navvi.com/blog/2015/1/23/how-can-the-countries-hardest-hit-by-ebola-avoid-a-potential-food-security-crisis

The Gates Foundation is funding a program called AGRA: the Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa. The hope is that this African-led movement can improve agricultural and market infrastructure. According to Davidson, this program is “not particularly hopeful.”

In a society which defines itself through rice, it is important to consider the effects of climate change beyond the environment or the economy. It becomes an existential issue for the Jola people, who eat rice at every meal. In an anecdote from Davidson’s research, she cooked a spaghetti dinner for the family she was staying with. After the meal, the family asked “So now, where is the food?”

Two Presentations on Sustainable Forestry

This past week, Tufts was host to two guest speakers talking about sustainable forest management. The first, last Monday, was a representative of Mexican reforestation initiative Ejido Verde. At the Environmental Studies department’s weekly Lunch & Learn, Tufts lecturer in environmental anthropology and MIT doctoral candidate Tod Özden-Schilling spoke about the use of computer models in forestry research.

CEO of Ejido Verde, Shaun Paul, stopped by GDAE at Tufts to present on their sustainable and equitable model for pine resin production in the Mexican state of Michoacán. “Ejido Verde” means green “ejido,” which is the term used in Mexico for communally owned land used for agriculture, or in this case, agroforestry.

This video was produced as part of a crowdfunding campaign, which raised their initial goal of $200,000 in only two weeks. As explained in the video, the Purépecha people now have income from over 2400 hectares of pine resin production. Pine resin is used in products including chewing gum, adhesives, food preservatives and more. Mexico is the fifth largest producer of pine resin, with 95% of that coming from the state of Michacán. Mexico has a huge variety of pines, many of which produce large quantities of valuable resin. China, Indonesia and Brazil are by far the largest producers.

Agroforestry in Michoacán

Agroforestry in Michoacán. Source: http://ejidoverde.org/

Here’s how the model works: Working with the communal owners of ejidos, mostly in Michoacán, Ejido Verde brings funding and sustainable forest management education to provide an initial investment of ~$2000 per hectare of ejido. These are long-term loans, a result of the fact that it takes at least 8-10 years for a pine forest to become ready for tapping. Ten years later, a hectare of pine forest can be expected to generate $3,400 in revenue per year, for eighty years. Cultivation and maintenance are paid through debt financing in the short-term, providing much needed job opportunities to the region. Longer-term, the ejido benefits from a stable revenue source for years to come. Ejido Verde takes 10% of the value of resin sold by the ejido to the pine resin industry. On top of this revenue, the Mexican government pays the ejidos for the benefits of reforestation.

Ejido Verde struggles with reconciling the need for biodiversity in long-term sustainability with the need for short- and long-term revenue to sustain the indigenous people of Michoacán. Pine beetles are an issue affecting many ejidos, but because the system is scattered and not confined to one large area, spread of pests is somewhat controlled.

The Mountain Pine Beetle. Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mountain_pine_beetle#/media/File:Dendroctonus_ponderosae.jpg

The Mountain Pine Beetle. Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Mountain_pine_beetle#/media/File:Dendroctonus_ponderosae.jpg

Tom Özden-Schilling spoke to the Environmental Studies Department about the contention between field-based vs computer model based forestry research. With ever increasing technological tools at the fingertips of forestry scientists, the world of “experimental forests” is diminishing. Computer models are thought by many to be capable of turning what used to be a scientific problem into an engineering problem: What features can be put into place in order to grow the most trees at the fastest rate. Unlike experimental forests, these computer models were unable to account for the presence of the mountain pine beetle, which swept through British Columbia’s forests between 2001-2009. More about Özden-Schilling’s is outlined in this blog post of his from 2014.

 

Tufts MPP Alumni Panel
| April 11, 2016 | 12:57 pm | M.P.P., Tufts | Comments closed

Screen Shot 2016-04-11 at 12.54.22 PM

Last week UEP hosted an event for current, former, and prospective students in the mid-career Master of Public Policy program. The event, hosted at the Tufts Interfaith Center, was an opportunity for MPP and MA students to hear more about reasons for entering the program and how it has helped them in their careers. Since 2002, the MPP program has been helping local practitioners to enhance their professional practice, pursue career shifts, and find a space for reflection and rejuvenation.

Panelists:

  • Mary Ann Crayton (2007) – Senior Director of Community Engagement for Boston Public Schools
  • Doug Cress (2013) – Director of Health and Human Services Department for the City of Somerville
  • Allentza Michel (2015) – Founder & Principal of Powerful Pathways Consulting
  • Elaine Ng (2014) – Director of Strategic Planning and Special Education at Boston Public Schools
  • Alex Oliver-Davila (2013) – Executive Director of Sociedad Latina and member of the Boston School Committee
From Left: Current M.P.P. students Maria Ortiz and Sibu Malaba, M.P.P. alumni Alex Oliver-Davila (2013), Elaine Ng (2014), Doug Kress (2013), Allentza Michel (2015), and Mary Ann Crayton (2007)

From Left: Current M.P.P. students Maria Ortiz and Sibu Malaba, M.P.P. alumni Alex Oliver-Davila (2013), Elaine Ng (2014), Doug Kress (2013), Allentza Michel (2015), and Mary Ann Crayton (2007)

Since 2002, 130 students have enrolled in the MPP program, which is a 1-year full-time or 2-3 year part-time degree program, flexible to suit work constraints. The curriculum focuses on program evaluation, negotiations, Geographic Information Systems, financial management, philanthropy and fundraising.

Nearly 30% of MPPers are over 45 years of age, with the median age being 38. 47% of enrolling MPP students from 2002-2013 have been people of color and 60% have been women. 69% are employed full-time and 21% part-time. MPP is known as a social justice and community-oriented professional public policy program for students bringing at least 7 years of relevant professional experience working on issues like affordable housing, neighborhood development, social welfare, sustainable communities, and environmental management. More information about the program can be found here.

Susan Buckingham: Why Climate Change Is a Gendered Issue
| April 7, 2016 | 9:54 am | Colloquium | Comments closed

Feminist geographer, consultant, and former Brunel University professor Susan Buckingham visited UEP’s weekly colloquium yesterday to present her work on the links between gender and environmental issues. Her forthcoming book, Understanding Climate Change through Gender Relations will deal with climate change as a product and amplifier of social inequalities. Even in the realm of current environmental justice dialogues, she claims, gender is not adequately addressed.

http://www.susanbuckingham.org/#!books/cee5

http://www.susanbuckingham.org /#!books/cee5

One theme of her discussion was climate change as violence, with a disproportionate effect on women and girls. In an example from Bangladesh, 90% of deaths in a 1991 flood were women and girls. Refugee camps across the world are predominantly populated by women. In cases of refugees seeking asylum, rules dictate that asylum-seekers can’t work. This, according to Buckingham, produces a large number of bored, broke, mostly female refugees, many of whom end up turning to sex work.

The UN recognized the gendered component of climate change in 1992, when they incorporated gender equality into their development goals. Since the COP 18 in Doha, representatives have worked toward gender balance in negotiations. There is a generally accepted idea that once female representation reaches 30%, there will be a shift in balance and approaches to dealing with environmental issues. The problem with this line of thinking is that, like many movements, the environmental movement has tended to be “hypermasculine.” Many of the women being promoted to leadership positions have ended up there because of their willingness to follow this mentality.

Women in environmental movement marketing are predominantly portrayed in a sexualized way (think PETA’s “I’d rather go naked than wear fur” campaign) or as victims, which they often are. Meanwhile, men are portrayed as courageous heroes.

Hypermasculine environmental activism http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2014/nov/19/greenpeace-ship-arctic-sunrise-detained-in-spain

Hypermasculine environmental activism
http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2014/nov/19/ greenpeace-ship-arctic-sunrise-detained-in-spain

According to standpoint theory, the most disadvantaged people are the best equipped to critique the system and should be involved in changing it. Currently, 90% of environmental nonprofit executive directors are men and 99% are white. This has led to blindspots in strategic approaches and a lack of understanding around the intersections between race, gender and environmental issues.

Susan Buckingham’s presentation can be found here:Tufts_BuckinghamPowerPoint

Sustainable Aquaculture: The Seaweed Industry in New England
| April 1, 2016 | 2:36 pm | Tufts Environmental Studies Department | Comments closed

 

On Thursday, the Tufts Environmental Studies department was visited by Lindsay Green, a PhD and researcher focused on seaweed physiology, aquaculture and ecology. Aquaculture refers to the farming of aquatic organisms including fish, shellfish, and seaweed. World aquaculture has been expanding by about 10% per year for decades, with most of that consisting of fish. Approximately 1/4 of current aquaculture production consists of plants and seaweed. Despite this growth, the U.S. accounts for only 1% of aquaculture production, which contributes to its over $10billion trade deficit for seafood. China, on the other hand, produced 23.8 million tons of seaweed alone in 2012. China and Indonesia together make up 81.4% of global seaweed aquaculture production.

In New England, the majority of the aquaculture industry is in shellfish.  However, there are a few companies in Maine growing both kelp and dulse on a commercial scale. Much of this is intended for direct consumption, but seaweed is also valuable for its use in biomedical applications, textiles, animal feeds, and agricultural crop enhancement.

Porphyra umbilicalis, the nori seaweed from your sushi

Porphyra umbilicalis, the nori seaweed from your sushi*

Kelp

Kelp**

Dulse

Dulse***

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture

IMTA is a system in which the potentially environmentally harmful effects of fish aquaculture are used to enhance production of shellfish and seaweed aquaculture. Waste materials from one species serve as food or fertilizer for the next, creating a loop of healthy and sustainable aquaculture.

IMTA: Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture

IMTA: Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture****

Green’s research has focused on optimizing seaweed production for conditions found off the New England coast. She found that local seaweed and kelp species tend to grow more rapidly under long exposure to sunlight, by phycobilins (good pigments) and protein tend to develop more with less sunlight. These are all important components of a quality seaweed product, so Green suggested a short, heavily lit production cycle followed by a “finishing off” period of relative darkness. This would allow optimal growth with an opportunity to produce pigments and proteins.

Keep your eyes open for locally grown seaweed! It can be grown sustainably in our delicate ocean ecosystems and there is already a huge market for it in other parts of the world. Could kelp be the next kale?

*https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Porphyra_umbilicalis_Helgoland.JPG

**http://byrneslab.net/project/kelp-forests-and-climate-change/

***http://www.diets-usa.com/bacon-flavored-seaweed-may-prove-worlds-new-superfood/

****https://www.researchgate.net/figure/276174838_fig1_Fig-1-Conceptual-diagram-of-the-integrated-multitrophic-aquaculture-system-Boxes