Post #3: The genetic heritability and make-up of MS

In order to find a method for self repairing neurons affected by the degenerative effects of multiple sclerosis, it is necessary to understand from where multiple sclerosis originates. There is limited knowledge regarding the development of multiple sclerosis specifically in terms of genetic heritability. Family based-linkage analyses have shown MS is related to genes that encode for the human leucocyte antigen (Lin, Charlesworth, Mei, & Taylor, 2012). Furthermore genome-wide association studies have identified over 60 loci related to MS in regions of the chromosome corresponding to T-cells and the immune system (Lin, 2012). These two linkage and association studies only explain 18-24% of the heritability of MS (Lin, 2012). Many theories have been created in order to make up for the lack of knowledge about the genetic heritability of MS. The first theory includes that rare and common variants of allele frequencies related to MS that account for most of its heritability have still not been found (Lin, 2012). The second theory of epigenetics suggests that environmental factors may trigger certain gene expressions related to MS (Lin, 2012). The third theory of gene-gene interactions explains how genes of the same phenotype may have an effect on how that phenotype is expressed (Lin, 2012). The fourth theory suggests structural variants in DNA that have not been thoroughly research may hold an association between the genes and complex traits related to MS (Lin, 2012). The last theory describes how pathway involvement of congregated variants of genes may lead to susceptibility of MS and other diseases (Lin, 2012). Genetic studies still lack the methods to understand the complexity of the genes associated with MS (Lin, 2012). Without knowing the exact genes associated with MS it will be difficult to create ways to modify the cell genome in order for the myelin sheath to undergo a self-reparation process. Other ways of treating MS may need to be explored since modeling the self-reparation process of the Deinococcus radiodurans bacteria maybe difficult without knowledge of the genetic makeup of MS.

Lin, R., Charlesworth, J., Mei, I. V., & Taylor, B. V. (2012, October). The Genetics of Multiple Sclerosis. Retrieved October 11, 2018, from https://pn.bmj.com/content/12/5/279.info

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