BLOG POST 1: What is Human Factors and Ergonomics?

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What is it?

On a macro level, the field of human factors and ergonomics seeks to encourage the well being of all people. The World Health Organization defines the human factors field as:

IEA

“examin[ing] the relationship between human beings and the systems with which they interact [1] by focusing on improving efficiency, creativity, productivity and job satisfaction, with the goal of minimizing errors.“

The WHO’s definition may seem paradoxical to some readers. How can employers increase their businesses’s efficiency without compromising its employees job satisfaction? Or how can an employee encourage outside of the box thinking while limiting employee errors?

It is true that the implementation of these goals can be counterproductive, which is why it is even more important to understand the consequences of manipulating certain environmental factors or systems. Human factors engineers must be cognizant that their goal is to “study…all the factors that make it easier to do…work in the right way” (World Health Organization).

Global Air Training

The fact that human factor engineers must study all factors reinforces that the field is extremely broad and multidisciplinary in nature. Human factor engineers do work in medical environments, nuclear power plants, military equipment, and much more. Human factors is so broad in nature because it has applications in any environment in which humans interact with something or someone. Because humans are working in these fields, there will be mistakes made and, as a consequence, the need to minimize human error in order to protect the best interest of human health.

But what’s the difference between Human Factors and Ergonomics?

Officesscape, Tips to Improve Ergonomics in the Workstation

According to the International Ergonomics Association and Merriam-Webster, human factors and ergonomics are terms that can be used interchangeably.

What causes Human Error?
The defintiion of human error may appear to be straightforward: when a human makes a blatant mistake. For example, an engineer making a miscalculation that leads to the instability of a structure. However, we should not define human error in such a singular manner. Ground Truth Trekking, a nonprofit that aims to protect Alaska’s natural resources through means such as human factors interventions, acknowledges that human error can stem from a multitude of factors:

 “- risk-taking philosophies
– engineering miscalculation
– mentally filtering data to fit our expectations
– “groupthink”
– social dynamics
– political pressure
– the natural difficulty humans have recognizing and responding to non-linear systems”
These factors illustrate that human errors are not always so obvious; rather, they can be poor choices or are only clear to be bad choices in hindsight after an issue arises (Ground Truth Trekking). For example, many people fall victim to placing more emphasis in evidence in favor of their hypothesis and ignoring or wrongfully discrediting evidence that goes against their hypothesis. Although someone may think that they are following the correct path, they may be blind to their biases which then results in human error.

A Case Study in Human Factors

Wikipedia, Teton Dam Sequence

The Teton Dam failure is an excellent example of what human factors aims to solve. Here is the link to the case study and explains extensively why the dam collapsed. In essence, the dam did not collapse because the engineers broke code or standard procedures. Rather, the collapse came from  “faulty investigation, disregarding of conflicting information, assumptions about evidence, and the pressures of financial commitment” (Ground Truth Trekking). Thus, political pressure, mentally filtering data to fit our exactions, and groupthink were some of the factors that lead to the breach of the damn. Since no other engineer mentioned a plan if the grouting did not hold, groupthink took away the teams ability to think creatively for unforeseen consequences. The financial restraints of the project and political pressure to complete the project allowed the engineers to mentally fit the data to their expectations when the geologists warned them of the risk of seismic collapse.

I mention this case study in order to not only define issues that human factors attempts to solve or prevent, but also relay the inherent need for human factors in order to minimize disaster.

What are the specializations in Human Factors?

According to the International Ergonomics Association, there are three broad areas human factors can be segmented into with of course further specializations within these segments:
– Physical Ergonomics: looks into human anatomy or physiology in order to minimize chronic or acute injury and productivity
– Cognitive Ergonomics: looks into human emotion and how systems can negatively or positively affect perception, memory, and response
– Organizational Ergonomics: looks how systems that include multiple people can be optimized in order to strengthen relationships, productivity, efficiency, reduce human error and much more

IEA

As mentioned before, human factors is an increasingly large field with growing influence and importance as technology continues to expand (i.e. human-computer interaction or AI). In closing, human factors aims to allow machines and systems to better fit humans.

Thank you for taking the time to read this article. Please comment any questions/comments you have below.

Works Cited
“Big Dams & Bad Choices: Two Case Studies in Human Factors and Dam Failure.” Ground Truth Trekking, www.groundtruthtrekking.org/Issues/OtherIssues/dam-failure-human-factors-cases-Teton-Vajont.html.
“Ergonomics.” Merriam-Webster, Merriam-Webster, www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/ergonomics.
“Global Air Training Picture.” Human Factors in Safety Critical Organisations Foundation Course, www.globalairtraining.com/human-factors-safety-foundation.php.
“IEA Article and Two Separate Pictures.” Definition and Domains of Ergonomics | IEA Website, www.iea.cc/whats/index.html.
PixBay Picture, static.pexels.com/photos/267967/pexels-photo-267967.jpeg.
Teton Dam Picture. upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/7/71/Teton_Dam_Sequence_13.jpg.
“Tips to Improve the Ergonomics of Workstations – Offiscapecommercial Furniture Solutions for the Modern Office.” Officescpace Picture, 25 June 2013, offiscape.com.au/offiscape-news/tips-to-improve-the-ergonomics-of-workstations/.
“Topic 2: What Is Human Factors and Why Is It Important to Patient Safety?” The World Health Organization, www.who.int/patientsafety/education/curriculum/who_mc_topic-2.pdf.

15 Comments

  1. I think your Teton Dam failure example is particularly interesting, and definitely speaks to the importance of implementing HF&E processes before, during and even after construction. It’s crazy to think that political pressures and financial limitations can cause professional engineers to filter data to their own expectations despite warnings from geologists of a potential seismic collapse. This example got me thinking about the future of autonomous driving. Everyone is saying that human error causes the majority of car crashes in our world today. Yet, if humans are the ones constructing these autonomous vehicles, and one of these vehicles crashes, isn’t that too a product of human error?

  2. I really like your analysis of all the sources of human error. I think it’s interesting that things such as political pressure or group think can contribute to errors. As the field of human factors expands with a burst in new technology, it’s crucial to understand all of the sources of error so that one can prevent design flaws.

  3. Humans always make an error even though he strives 100% to not make it. But it’s a well-analysed research which is reflective.

  4. I just read your article about your branded packaging experience – btw, your comments are closed for some reason, which is why I’m leaving a comment here. I actually recently had a very good experience unwrapping a gift. I got the wool runner from Allbirds, which is this new company based out of SF that creates shoes from New Zealand superfine merino wool: https://www.allbirds.com/

    Unwrapping this gift was oddly satisfying, and I almost didn’t even want to take the shoes out of the box. See what the packaging looks like here: https://www.google.com/search?q=allbirds+packaging&rlz=1C1GCEA_enUS779US780&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwijo9Shu8bZAhVhiOAKHeDWALoQ_AUICigB&biw=1280&bih=566#imgrc=BwMARmXZDORveM:

    Very cool the effect packaging can have on a customer. Good packaging most likely keeps customers coming back – at least it does for me.

  5. I really like how this post was laid out! I also thought this was super informative in the kinds of applications that the field of human factors has in real life situations. Can’t wait to read more of your posts!

  6. Hey..
    This is really an Excellent post. Thank you very much for telling us about this blog. And I will love to know more about this.

  7. The human factor in the industry improves productivity and avoids job losses and unergonomic processes. An approach is needed to ensure a safe working environment and emphasize its ethical component as a prerequisite for innovation and productivity. The knowledge human ergonomics ergonomists and practitioners have about management strategies and management systems must be improved.

  8. Una investigacion muy buena para no cometer tantos erroresa dia de hoy.

  9. Una investigacion muy buena para no cometer tantos erroresa dia de hoy..

  10. reativity and science in order to help create meaningful products. Industrial designers are tasked with creating initial designs for products, and, for this reason, they must fully understand their consumer and ways that the product will be used. Industrial designers provide initial sketches of concepts for their clients, and then adjust their designs accordingly until their client is satisfied . According to Sokuna (2018), industrial designers usually specialize in a particular industry. There is a plethora of industries available for industrial de

  11. El factor humano en la industria mejora la productividad y evita la pérdida de empleos y procesos no ergonómicos.
    Se necesita un enfoque para garantizar un entorno de trabajo seguro y enfatizar su componente ético como requisito previo para la innovación y la productividad.
    Se debe mejorar el conocimiento que los especialistas, ergonomistas y profesionales en la materia tienen sobre las estrategias de gestión y los sistemas de gestión.

  12. Thanks for sharing the article. It is nice and informative.

  13. Very good information. Talking about the factors that humans have.

  14. y good information. Talking ab

  15. Thank you very much for sharing the article of the post in this blog. It makes me feel new power. It is also very nice and illustrative.

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