1st Grade

The Coding As Another Language for KIBO (CAL–KIBO) curriculum introduces powerful ideas from computer science, in conversation with literacy in a playful, structured, and developmentally appropriate way. The Coding as Another Language (CAL) approach, developed by Prof. Marina Umaschi Bers and members of her DevTech Research Group at Tufts University, understands the learning of computer science as a new literacy for the 21st century that  supports young learners in developing new ways of thinking about themselves and the world.

The CAL-KIBO curriculum for First Grade has 14 lessons, designed for a total of 14 hours, but can be adapted to any learning setting. Students will learn computer science and develop problem solving and computational thinking in the context of creating their own projects. In addition, to strengthen the literacy connection, the curriculum is integrated with the children’s book “Where the Wild Things Are” by Maurice Sendak.

Download the entire unit document, or edit by making a copy to adapt to your teaching context. 


The Pedagogy

The CAL curriculum is implemented following the pedagogical approach developed by Prof. Marina Bers that can be found in her books Coding as a Playground and Beyond Coding: Teaching Human Values to Children. This pedagogy has four main frameworks:

Coding as a Playground: When engaging children in a computer science learning experience, we welcome play. Through play we can impact all areas of human development: cognitive, socio-emotional, language, moral, physical and even spiritual. The coding playground, in contrast with the coding playpen, promotes opportunities for open-ended exploration, creation of personally meaningful projects, imagination, problem solving, conflict resolution and collaboration. The coding playground engages children in six behaviors that we can also find in the regular playground: content creation, creativity, choices of conduct, communication, collaboration and community building. These 6C’s are further explained in the PTD theoretical framework in Marina Bers' book, and are highlighted in the activities throughout the curriculum with their respective icons:

Icon Behavior
Content Creation by designing a KIBO robot and programming its behaviors. Writing artifacts and open-ended projects enable children to document their own thinking, their learning trajectories and projects’ evolution over time.
Creativity by making and programming personally meaningful projects, problem solving in creative playful ways and integrating different media such as robotics, motors, sensors, recyclable materials, arts and crafts, and a tangible programming language. Final KIBO projects that represent a theme from the overall early childhood curriculum are a wonderful way to engage children in the creative process of learning.
Collaboration by engaging children in a learning environment that promotes working in teams, sharing resources and caring about each other while working with their KIBO robots. Collaboration is defined here as getting or giving help with a project, programming together, lending or borrowing materials, or working together on a common task.
Communication through mechanisms that promote a sense of connection between peers or with adults, for example technology circles in which children stop their work, put their projects on the table or floor, and share their learning process. Technology circles present an opportunity for problem solving as a community. Each classroom will have its own routines and expectations around group discussions and circle times, so you are encouraged to adapt what already works in their class for the technology circles in this curriculum.
Community Building through scaffolded opportunities to form a learning community that promotes contribution of ideas. Open houses provide authentic opportunities for children to share and celebrate the process and tangible products of their learning with peers and families.
Choices of Conduct which provide children with the opportunity to experiment with “what if” questions and potential consequences, and to provoke examination of values and exploration of character traits while working with robotics. As a program developed following the PTD approach, the focus on learning about robotics is as important as helping children develop an inner compass to guide their actions in a just and responsible way.

Coding as Another Language: Characterizing coding as a STEM activity is limiting. Instead, if we position the teaching and learning of programming as a new way of thinking and expressing ourselves, we are in the domain of language. Mastering a symbolic system of representation with communicative and expressive functions, opens up many opportunities. Learning to code becomes a creative, expressive activity, to produce something meaningful and shareable, and not only a problem-solving skill set. The CAL pedagogy promotes the exploration of the similarities and differences between natural and artificial languages for the creation process, their syntax and grammar, and their potential to empower individuals. When coding is taught as a language, and not only as STEM, the human dimension comes into play.

Coding as a Bridge: Programming is a semiotic act, a meaning making activity that uses and combines symbols to represent abstract ideas. When we learn to code, we learn a new language. Languages can create or destroy, and can serve to build bridges or walls. In the coding playground, the intention is to build bridges. CAL proposes that by learning the artificial language of machines, we can also learn the human language that serves us to interact with others, to connect in deep ways and to create meaningful  relationships.  The metaphor of coding as a bridge promotes dialogue and meaningful encounters with others and situates coding as socio emotional learning, and not only a cognitive activity.

Coding as a Palette of Virtues: Any human activity involves human values. Making choices to engage in some behaviors and not others. Understanding and taking on responsibilities and consequences. The coding playground, through the CAL pedagogy, provides an intentional opportunity to teach and learn values. The metaphor of a palette of virtues recalls the painter’s palette. Like the artist who makes her palette with new colors and mixes and matches them, the coder also has a dynamic virtues palette that she puts to use. In the coding playground, ten of these values are explicitly explored:  Curiosity, Perseverance, Open-mindedness, Optimism, Honesty, Patience, Generosity, Gratitude, Forgiveness, Fairness. However, new ones can be added. Creative programming can be a pathway for character development, for exploring the socio emotional dimension and ethical dimension of learning. Ultimately, to understand that our actions, like the actions of anyone who creates, have consequences.

 

Value Definition Activities
A strong desire to know or learn something; novelty seeking. Star and a Wish
Persistence in a course of action in spite of difficulty or adversity; determination in pursuing goals; firmness of purpose; grit; belief that we can improve. Debugging Board

I am a CODER

The capacity to accept or tolerate delay, trouble, or suffering without getting angry or upset Debugging Board

I am a CODER

Hopefulness and confidence about the future or a successful outcome; expecting the best. Star and a Wish

Crossing the Room

The quality of being honorable; rectitude; uprightness; integrity Debugging Board

Relaying the Rules

Impartial and just treatment without favoritism or discrimination; justice Relaying the Rules

Trading

The quality of being kind; giving and receiving, helping self and others Making a Web

Trading

The quality of being thankful; readiness to show appreciation; being aware of good things Star and a Wish

Making a Web

Trading

The action of pardoning and accepting, giving a second chance to self and others I am a CODER
The quality of being willing to consider ideas, opinions and feelings that are new or different from your own; flexibility in taking different perspectives. Debugging Board

Crossing the Room

Powerful Ideas

The curriculum is organized around powerful ideas from both computer science and literacy. The term powerful idea refers to a central concept or skills within a discipline that is simultaneously personally useful, inherently interconnected with other disciplines, and has roots in intuitive knowledge that a child has internalized over a long period of time. 

The powerful ideas from computer science addressed in this curriculum include: algorithms, design process, representation, debugging, control structures, modularity, and hardware/software  The powerful ideas from literacy that will be placed in conversation with these powerful ideas from computer science are: the writing process, recalling, summarizing and sequencing, using illustrative and descriptive language, recognizing literary devices such as repetition and foreshadowing, and using reading strategies such as predicting, summarizing and evaluating. (see Table 1). 

Table 1: Powerful Ideas

Powerful Ideas from Computer SciencePowerful Ideas from LiteracyConnecting the Powerful Ideas

Algorithms

Relevant Lessons: 3, 4, 7 

Sequencing, Summarizing

Relevant Lessons: 3

Emphasis on “order matters,” and that complex tasks can be broken down into step-by-step instructions in a logical way.

Design Process

Relevant Lessons: 1, 4, 11, 12

Writing Process, Descriptive Language in Writing

Relevant Lessons: 1, 3, 4, 7, 9, 11, 12

Creative, iterative, cyclic processes that involve imagining, planning, making, revising, and sharing, with different starting points.
Representation

Relevant Lessons: 2, 3, 6, 7

Alphabet and Letter-Sound Correspondence, Characterization

Relevant Lessons: 6

Symbols have different attributes (color, shape, sound, etc.) in order to represent something else.
Debugging

Relevant Lessons: 5, 9, 10

Editing and Audience Awareness

Relevant Lessons: 5

Systematic analysis, testing, and evaluation to improve communication to the intended audience (computer or person). Whenever miscommunication occurs, the programmer or writer uses a variety of strategies to solve the problem.
Control Structures

Relevant Lessons: 6, 8, 9, 10

Literary Devices

Relevant Lessons: 8, 9

Advanced strategies to communicate a set of ideas using repetition, patterns, conditionals and events.
Modularity

Relevant Lessons: 7, 8

Phonological Awareness, Storytelling

Relevant Lessons:

Decomposition, or breaking down a complex task into smaller tasks and re-using those new modules.
Hardware and Software

Relevant Lessons: 2, 3 

Tools of Communication and Language

Relevant Lessons: 2

Communicating abstract ideas through tangible means. Just like hardware and software work together, the expression of thoughts through language requires a medium for communicating to the outside world, such as spoken or written word.

 

KIBO Skills

The most important skills from KIBO used in each lesson are as listed below (see Table 2). Note that this is not a complete list because each activity is meant to be creative and typically open-ended. This table is meant to indicate which skills it would be difficult to complete a lesson without. Students are always encouraged to use any blocks or skills they learn in class or on their own on any project.

Table 2: KIBO Skills

KIBO Skills Relevant Lessons
Parts of the KIBO Robot Lessons 3*, 5
Begin/End blocks Lessons 2*, 4, 5
Motion blocks Lessons 4, 5
Light blocks Lessons 4, 5
Beep/Sing blocks Lessons 4, 5
Wait for Clap block Lessons 6*, 7
Play Triangle/Square/Circle blocks Lessons 6*, 7
Repeat blocks with Number Parameters Lessons 8*
Repeat blocks with Sensor Parameters Lessons 9*
Conditional blocks with Sensor Parameters Lessons 10*
Decorating KIBO Lessons 12

* This lesson contains the introduction or tutorial for the associated KIBO concept. 

Integrated Curriculum Design

The CAL approach allows students to make connections between coding and literacy, as well as between coding and math. This curriculum encourages students to express their thoughts, ideas, and learning through KIBO activities. The curriculum is designed for a total of 14 hours, but can be adapted to particular learning settings. Each lesson contains a variety of activities, including:

  • Warm-up activities to playfully introduce or reinforce concepts
  • Opening/Closing Technology Circles to discuss, share, and reflect on activities and concepts
  • Structured Challenges with KIBO to introduce the powerful ideas from computer science
  • Expressive Explorations with KIBO to practice the skill in a creative, open-ended way
  • Unplugged Time Games/activities to promote social interactions and movement
  • Word Time to introduce key vocabulary and powerful ideas from literacy 

The culmination of the unit is an open-ended project to share with family and friends. Just as young children can read age-appropriate books, computer programming can be made accessible by providing young children with appropriate tools such as KIBO. This curriculum provides integration between computer science and programming in the context of literacy. Students will learn to explore various books and write creative, fun programs using KIBO.

Pacing

This 14-hour curriculum unit is designed to take place over the course of a few months with one or two sessions per week (i.e., 1-2 hours each week for 2-3 consecutive months). Some students may benefit from further division of the activities into smaller steps or from more time to explore each new concept before moving onto the next, either in the context of free-exploration or with teacher-designed challenges. Each of the powerful ideas from computer science in this curriculum can easily be expanded into a unit of study which will extend the curriculum and allow students to explore a range of different activities.

Lesson  Activities Objectives
1. Foundations
  1. What is an Engineer? (20 min) 
  2. Engineers and Writers (10 min) 
  3. Think Like an Engineer (10 min) 
  4. How to Make a Pizza (20 min)
Students will be able to...

  • Define engineer and understand that there are different types of engineers
  • Compare and contrast the Design Process and Writing Process 
  • Use the Design and Writing Processes to write a set of instructions for making something 
2. Technological Tools - Robots
  1. Robot Corners (15 min)
  2. Characteristics of Robots (10 min) 
  3. Tools of Communication (10 min) 
  4. Human Language vs. Code Language (10 min) 
  5. Programmer Says (15 min)
Students will be able to...

  • Identify characteristics of a robot
  • Compare human languages and programming languages
  • Create a simple algorithm using the KIBO programming blocks
3. Sequencing 
  1. Where the Wild Things Are (15 min) 
  2. Writing Reflection (20 min)
  3. Program the Teacher with KIBO Blocks (10 min) 
  4. Meet the KIBO Robot (10 min)
  5. Clean Up (5 min)
Students will be able to..

  • Understand why order matters  when programming a robot or telling a story 
  • Identify the different parts of the KIBO robot
4. Programming
  1. Dance the Hokey-Pokey (5 min) 
  2. Program the Hokey-Pokey (20 min) 
  3. Hokey-Pokey Reflection (10 min) 
  4. Share Creations (5 min)
  5. Clean Up (5 min)
  6. KIBO Mastery Challenge A (15 min)
Students will be able to...

  • Tell and retell a story clearly and effectively 
  • Identify common errors with   scanning KIBO programs and troubleshoot them 
  • Practice scanning programs with KIBO
  • Learn strategies for debugging and editing
5. Debugging
  1. Tell a Story (20 min) 
  2. Why is KIBO Confused? (15 min)
  3. Free Play (10 min)
  4. Debugging Reflection (10 min)
  5. Clean Up (5 min)
Students will be able to…

  • Identify common errors with   scanning KIBO programs and troubleshoot them  
  • Practice scanning programs with KIBO 
  • Learn strategies for debugging and editing
6. Cause and Effect - Level 1
  1. What did Max Sense (15 min)
  2. KIBO Sound Sensor (5 min)
  3. Shape Shifting (10 min)
  4. KIBO Sound Recorder (5 min)
  5. Free Play (10 min)
  6. Clean Up (5 min)
  7. KIBO Mastery Challenge B (10 min)
Students will be able to…

  • Distinguish between human senses and robot sensors 
  • Use the KIBO Sound Sensor with its appropriate Wait for Clap block
  • Record a sound clip successfully  using the Sound Recorder module and Sound Recorder blocks
7. Cause and Effect - Level 2
  1. Sing “If You’re Wild and You Know It” (5 min) 
  2. Program "If You're Wild and You Know It" (30 min)
  3. Project Reflection (10 min)
  4. Share Creations (10 min)
  5. Clean Up (5 min)
Students will be able to...

  • Program KIBO to sing and dance  to the “If You’re Wild and You Know It” song
8. Repeat Loops - Level 1
  1. Repetition in Stories and Songs (15 min) 
  2. Toothbrush Exercise (15 min)
  3. KIBO Repeat with Numbers (15 min)
  4. Clean Up (5 min)
  5. KIBO Mastery Challenge C (10 min)
Students will be able to…

  • Identify patterns in code sequences and rewrite codes using repeat loops
  • Use KIBO number parameters to  make a program that loops a certain of times 
  • Understand how repetition is used  in stories and songs
9. Repeat Loops - Level 2
  1. My Five Senses (20 min)
  2. KIBO Repeat with Light Sensor (10 min) 
  3. Free Play with Repeats (25 min)
  4. Clean Up (5 min)
Students will be able to…

  • Compare and contrast human senses and robot sensors
  • Successfully test a KIBO program using the Light sensor
10. Repeat and If Statements
  1. Writing an Alternative Story (20 min)
  2. KIBO Repeat with Distance Sensor (15 min)
  3. Free Play (20 min)
  4. Optional Extension Activity: KIBO If Statements
  5. Optional Extension Activity: Nested Statements
  6. Clean Up (5 min)
Students will be able to…

  • Successfully test a conditional  KIBO program using the Distance and Light sensors  
  • Identify situations that would require an If statement or a Repeat loop
11. Final Project - Writing the Wild Rumpus Composition
  1. Wild Rumpus Composition (20 min)  
  2. Writing vs. Coding (10 min)
  3. Begin Designing Projects (20 min)
  4. Technology Circle (10 min)
Students will be able to…

  • Utilize the Writing Process by writing their Wild Rumpus composition 
  • Decide which of their ideas can and cannot be translated into KIBO programs 
12. Final Project - Coding the Wild Rumpus (Day 1)
  1. Plan and Create (20 min) 
  2. Coding the Wild Rumpus (20 min)
  3. Test and Improve (10 min) 
  4. Clean Up and Prep for Next Day (10 min)
Students will be able to…

  • Demonstrate the Design Process  in full by planning, designing, and creating a final KIBO project
13. Final Project - Coding the Wild Rumpus (Day 2)
  1. Revise Projects (15 min) 
  2. Peer Feedback (10 min)
  3. Collaboration Web (10 min) 
  4. Decorating KIBO (20 min)
  5. Clean Up (5 min)
Students will be able to…

  • Demonstrate the Design Process  in full by planning, designing, and creating a final KIBO project  
14. Final Project - Coding the Wild Rumpus (Day 3)
  1. Prepare for Sharing (5 min)
  2. Share Creations (20 min)
  3. Clean Up (5 min)
  4. Wild Rumpus Reflection (15 min)
  5. KIBO Mastery Challenge D (15 min)
Students will be able to…

  • Share final projects with peers, family and community members  
Materials

The robotics kit referred to in this curriculum is the KIBO-21 robotics kit, developed by the DevTech Research Group at Tufts University and made commercially available through KinderLab Robotics, Inc. The curriculum also utilizes children’s books (of teachers’ choice) to engage students in multimodal compositional activities. Other materials used in the curriculum are inexpensive crafts and recycled materials. The use of crafts and recycled materials, a practice already common in other domains of early childhood education, lets children build with a range of materials with which they are already comfortable with. There are many supplemental materials such as the KIBO Says cards and Activity Guide Cards that can be purchased through KinderLab Robotics.

Classroom Management

Teaching robotics and programming in an early childhood setting requires careful planning and ongoing adjustments when it comes to classroom management issues. These issues are not new to the early childhood teacher, but they may play out differently during robotics activities because of the novelty and behavior of the materials themselves. Issues and solutions other than those described here may arise from classroom to classroom. You should find what works in your particular circumstances. In general, provide and teach a clear structure and set of expectations for using materials and for the routines of each part of the lessons (technology circles, clean up time, etc.). Make sure the students understand the goal(s) of each activity. Posters and visual aids, (i.e., a design process graphic), can facilitate children’s attempts to answer their own questions and recall new information.

Managing Materials: Classroom-scale robotics projects require a lot of parts and materials, and the question of how to manage them brings up several key issues that can support or hinder the success of the unit. 

The first issue is accessibility of materials. Some teachers may choose to give a complete kit of materials to each child, pair, or table of several children. Children may label the kit with their name(s) and use the same kit for the duration of the curriculum. Other teachers may choose to take apart the kits and have materials sorted by type, and place all the materials in a central location. A word of caution, however: If materials are set up centrally, they must be readily visible and accessible, so children don’t forget what is available to them or find it too much of a hassle to get what they need. It is also important to find a clearly visible place to set up materials for demonstrations, posters or visual aids to display for reference, and for robotics and programming materials for each lesson. To facilitate teamwork and equal participation, teachers can distribute “Scanner, Assistant, and Organizer” Job Cards to students to help assign specific roles when working with KIBO. 

The second issue is usability. In some cases, children’s desks or tables do not provide enough space to build a robot and program it. Care must be taken to ensure that children have enough space to use the materials available to them. If this is not the case, they may tend towards choosing materials that fit the space but not their robotics or programming goal. You should carefully consider how to address these issues surrounding materials in a way that makes sense for your class’s space, routines, and culture. Then, it is crucial to set expectations for how to use and treat materials. These issues are important not only in making the curriculum logistically easier to implement, but also because, as described in the Reggio Emilia tradition, the environment can act as the “third teacher” (Darragh, 2006).

Group Sizes: The curriculum refers to Whole Class, KIBO Groups, and Individual Work. During KIBO Group activities, we recommend groups as small as three students per KIBO kit. At the same time, the curriculum includes numerous opportunities to promote conversations which are enriched by multiple voices, viewpoints, and experiences. It is important to find a structure and group size for each of the different activities (instruction, discussions, free play, projects) that meet the needs of the teacher and students in the class. 

Managing Materials: Classroom-scale robotics projects require a lot of parts and materials, and the question of how to manage them brings up several key issues that can support or hinder the success of the unit. 

The first issue is accessibility of materials. Some teachers may choose to give a complete kit of materials to each child, pair, or table of several children. Children may label the kit with their name(s) and use the same kit for the duration of the curriculum. Other teachers may choose to take apart the kits and have materials sorted by type, and place all the materials in a central location. A word of caution, however: If materials are set up centrally, they must be readily visible and accessible, so children don’t forget what is available to them or find it too much of a hassle to get what they need. It is also important to find a clearly visible place to set up materials for demonstrations, posters or visual aids to display for reference, and for robotics and programming materials for each lesson. To facilitate teamwork and equal participation, teachers can distribute “Scanner, Assistant, and Organizer” Job Cards to students to help assign specific roles when working with KIBO. 

The second issue is usability. In some cases, children’s desks or tables do not provide enough space to build a robot and program it. Care must be taken to ensure that children have enough space to use the materials available to them. If this is not the case, they may tend towards choosing materials that fit the space but not their robotics or programming goal. You should carefully consider how to address these issues surrounding materials in a way that makes sense for your class’s space, routines, and culture. Then, it is crucial to set expectations for how to use and treat materials. These issues are important not only in making the curriculum logistically easier to implement, but also because, as described in the Reggio Emilia tradition, the environment can act as the “third teacher” (Darragh, 2006). 

Group Sizes

The curriculum refers to Whole Class, KIBO Groups, and Individual Work. During KIBO Group activities, we recommend groups as small as three students per KIBO kit. At the same time, the curriculum includes numerous opportunities to promote conversations which are enriched by multiple voices, viewpoints, and experiences. It is important to find a structure and group size for each of the different activities (instruction, discussions, free play, projects) that meet the needs of the teacher and students in the class.

Alignment of Academic Framework

This curriculum is designed for First Grade students but can also be used for budding KIBO programmers. The curriculum is aligned with nationally recognized computer science frameworks, including the ISTE Standards for Students (2017), K–12 Computer Science Framework (2016), Massachusetts Digital Literacy and Computer Science (DLCS) Curriculum Framework (2016), as well as Common Core English Language Arts (ELA)/Literacy Framework (Council of Chief State School Officers, 2011). In order to showcase how this curriculum may help reinforce other U.S. state academic standards, the lessons highlight standards alignment with the Virginia Standards of Learning (2017).

Assessments

The CAL curriculum understands assessment as a critical component of the teaching and learning process. It is a chance to stop the work and evaluate how things are going. Assessment provides opportunities for revisiting ideas, content and skills, to adjust and modify instructional practices, and to gather the needed information to communicate with parents. It can serve to eliminate achievement gaps and to modify pedagogical strategies. CAL assessments are rooted in the observation of children’s behaviors, the listening of children’s stories and reasoning, and the analysis of the work they produce. CAL includes formative assessments that are integrated throughout the lessons (these are called KIBO Mastery Challenges and can be found in Lessons 4, 6, 8, and 14). In addition, children’s projects are evaluated following the KIBO Project Rubric to identify coding skills as well as the expressiveness and purposefulness of the created projects. 

Math, literacy, and other standardized assessments may be useful when CAL is used in the context of research projects. In addition, three other forms of assessment are commonly employed:

  1. The Coding Stages Assessment (CSA) assesses progress in learning the KIBO programming languages (Bers, 2019).  This assessment is conducted one-on-one by asking the student interactive and open-ended programming questions. The assessment probes the five Coding Stages (Emergent, Coding and Decoding, Fluency, New Knowledge, and Purposefulness) that children go through when engaging in the CAL curriculum. CSA is administered as a game before and after the CAL curriculum and takes under 45 minutes to complete.
  2. TechCheck (Relkin, de Ruiter, Bers, 2020) is an “unplugged” assessment of Computational Thinking (CT) that presents children with challenges analogous to those that arise in the course of computer programming but does not require coding experience to complete. The assessment probes six domains of CT described by Bers (2018) as developmentally appropriate for young children (Algorithms, Modularity, Hardware/Software, Debugging, Representation, and Control Structures). The format is multiple choice and the assessment can be administered individually or to groups in 20 minutes or less. TechCheck is administered before and after the CAL curriculum.
  3. The PTD checklist evaluates six positive behaviors (“six C’s”) supported by programs such as CAL that implement educational technologies. These are communication, collaboration, community building, content creation, creativity, and choice of conduct (Bers, 2012; Bers, 2020). The PTD checklist is divided into six sections, each one representing a behavior described in the PTD framework. It is scored on a 5-point Likert scale based on approximately 20-30 minutes of observation. The PTD checklist is used at various points throughout the CAL curriculum to rate the extent to which learning environments/facilitators and child behaviors are contributing to positive technological development.
Anchor



Powerful Ideas of Computer Science
Design Process

Powerful Ideas of Literacy
Writing Process

Students will be able to:

  • Define engineer and understand that there are different types of engineers
  • Compare and contrast the Design Process and Writing Process
  • Use the Design and Writing Processes to write a set of instructions for making something

Vocabulary covered:

  • Author
  • Cycle
  • Design
  • Digital artifact
  • Engineer
  • Illustrator

Necessary Materials: Design Journal

Optional Resources: Lesson Slides, Lesson Video Tutorial

Warm Up

Activity 1: What is an Engineer?

(Suggested Time: 20 minutes)

Ask students: What do you think is an engineer? Do you know anyone who is an engineer? What kind of things do they do? 

Explain to students that engineers do many different things, one of which is working with and designing computers and robots. In this lesson, they will learn about those kinds of engineers, but first, they need to understand what all engineers have to do: design. Introduce the steps of the Design Process.

________________________________________________________________________

An engineer is anyone who invents or improves things (for instance, just about any object you see around you) or processes (such as methods) to solve problems or meet needs. Any human-made object you encounter in your daily life  was  influenced  by  engineers.  There  are  many  different  kinds  of  engineers  including:  biomedical  engineers, aerospace engineers, computer engineers, and industrial engineers. For descriptions and further activity ideas, check out the following resources: 

Show  students  a  series  of  pictures  of  naturally  occurring  and  man-made  objects  (show  pictures  one  at  a  time). Examples of pictures are included in Appendix A. If students think that the object was built by an engineer, they should  jump!  If  they  think  otherwise,  they  stay  seated.  Discuss  students’  reasoning. Ask  students:  What  made you think this was built by an engineer? What parts of the object made you think that way?

Opening Tech Circle

Activity 2: Engineers and Writers

(Suggested Time: 10 minutes)

Show  students  the  Design  Process  and  the  Writing  Process  side  by  side.  Explain  to  students  that  both  are  creative processes that require imagination, planning, creating, revising, feedback, and sharing. Both engineers and writers turn ideas  into  projects  that  are  shared  with  others.  Ask  students  what  other  activities  require  a  process  (e.g.,  cooking, painting,  getting  good  at  a  sport,  etc.).  Lead  student-centered  discussion  on  the  similarities  and  differences  between engineers and writers.

Closing Tech Circle

Activity 3: Think like an Engineer

(Suggested Time: 10 minutes)

Explain to students that everyone in the class is going to start thinking like an engineer! Ask students: Have you seen or interacted  with  robots  before?  What  do  they  look  like?  What  kinds  of  different  parts  make  up  a  robot?    How  do  you think engineers build robots? What might happen if the engineers went straight to building a robot without drawing out  a  plan  first? The  purpose  of  this  activity  is  to  engage  students  in  thinking  about  design  and  how  engineers  use different types of materials to create their products.

Word Time

Activity 4: How to Make a Pizza

(Suggested Time: 20 minutes)

How-to-Books are a low-stress entry point into writing. After all, all students know how to do something and the structure of a how-to book is fairly simple. In addition, pictures can easily take the place of words. We even suggest that each step in a how-to book should be accompanied by a sketch or picture.

Pass out the Design Journals. Ask students to create a “How-To Book” for making their own pizza. Ask students to include specific details so that someone else can learn how to make their pizza simply by reading these instructions. Depending on the students’ writing level, this activity may need more framing. Ask students: What topping will you put on top of your pizza? What are the steps for making a pizza? A wonderful resource for How-To- Books can be found at: https://www.education.com/lesson-plan/creating-a-how-to-book/. Students will share their How-To books in pairs in a later lesson.

Anchor



Powerful Ideas of Computer Science
Hardware/Software, Representation

Powerful Ideas of Literacy
Tools of Communication

Students will be able to:

  • Identify characteristics of a robot
  • Compare human languages and programming languages
  • Create a simple algorithm using the KIBO programming blocks

Vocabulary covered:

  • Robot
  • Barcode
  • Program
  • Block-based programming language
  • Hardware
  • Software

Optional Resources: Lesson Slides, Lesson Video Tutorial

Warm Up

Activity 1: Robot Corners

(Suggested Time: 15 minutes)

As explained in the book Blocks to Robots by Dr. Marina Bers (2008, p. 70), robots can “refer to a wide range of machines...that take on different forms... and can perform autonomous or preprogrammed tasks”. Despite their differences, all robots are “capable of movement under some form of control and can be used to perform physical tasks.” For example, you can give the robot a set of instructions for its motors in order to make the robot move. The robotic “brain”, just like the human brain, has the programmed instructions that make the robot perform its behaviors. It may be helpful to watch video clips of different types of robots in action such as home robots, space robots, factory robots, hospital robots, and child-made robots.

 

Ask all students to stand in a line or circle where they can see you. Designate three corners of the classroom: one corner for “Robots”, one corner for “Maybe Robots”, and one corner for “Not Robots.” One at a time, show a variety of different pictures of robots and non-robots (e.g. computers, cars, animals, foods, famous robots such as Wall-E and R2D2). Ask students to move to the corner that they think represents the picture. Then ask a few students to explain why they think the picture is a robot or not a robot or why they think it might be a robot. Do not reveal answers until after the next activity: Characteristics of Robots. It is important in this activity for students to share their ideas about what they think a robot is.

Opening Tech Circle

Activity 2: Characteristics of Robots

(Suggested Time: 10 minutes)

Read the true/false statements about robots below. Ask students to stand (or make another movement like snapping or waving their fingers in the air) for statements they think are true and sit down for statements they think are false.

Extended Graphing Activity: As you go along, make a graph on a piece of chart paper with True and False for each question along the horizontal axis and number of students along the vertical axis. Have students place a marker (sticker, symbol, etc.) in the “True” or “False” column. Explain to students that the graph allows us to see whether there were more “True” or “False” responses for each question.

  1. Robots are machines (TRUE).
  2. All robots are made of the same materials (FALSE).
  3. Robots must have moving parts (TRUE).
  4. Robots can think by themselves (FALSE).
  5. All robots look alike (FALSE).
  6. Robots must be able to move around the room (FALSE).
  7. Robots are operated using remote controls (FALSE).
  8. People tell robots how to behave with a list of instructions called a program (TRUE).
  9. Some robots can tell what is going on around them (TRUE) (Examples: sensing light, temperature, sound, or a touch.)
  10. Robots are alive (FALSE).

Choose 1-2 pictures from the Robot Corners activity and lead student-centered discussion about why that picture represents a robot or is not a robot based on what they have just learned about robots.

For further activity ideas on robots, check out the following resources: 

  • Robots, Robots Everywhere! by Sue Fliess
  • National Geographic Readers: Robots by Melissa Stewart
Word Time

Activity 3: Tools of Communication

(Suggested Time: 10 minutes)

Have students sit in a circle and play a game of “Telephone”, in which one student thinks of a message and whispers it to the person sitting next to them, who then whispers to the person next to them, and so on and so forth until the message gets to the last person. Ask the last person and the first person to say their messages out loud and compare the two messages. Ask students: Were the two messages the same? Why or why not? What are some other ways we could use to pass along a message?

Repeat the game one final time, this time by giving each student a typed and printed version of the message. Have a few students read out their printed message. Ask students: How was this better than the last two rounds? Are all students able to receive the same information? (Yes)

Repeat the game one final time, this time by giving each student a typed and printed version of the message. Have a few students read out their printed message. Ask students: How was this better than the last two rounds? Are all students able to receive the same information? (Yes)

At the end of the activity, explain to students how this mirrors the evolution of writing technology from oral societies to scribal writing to post-printing press. Help students draw the connection to the evolution of computers and robotic technologies. More specifically, explain to students that if we had to program robots without writing, it would be messy, but we can use computer writing to program robots, and that is called code.

KIBO Time

Activity 4: Human Language vs. Code Language

(Suggested Time: 10 minutes)

This activity also has two parts: Meaning of Words and KIBO’s Language. Both activities serve to illustrate how human languages (written and spoken) can be used to communicate a variety of things (e.g. sarcasm, allusions, hyperbole/ exaggerations, etc.), whereas programming languages are more structured and literal.

 

For the Meaning of Words activity, the goal is to remind students of what Mikhail Bakhtin calls, “heteroglosia,” the multiple meanings we all carry for each word. In simple terms, human language is much more dynamic than code language. Ask students what people actually mean when they say certain things. For example:

  • I’m so hungry I could eat a horse!
  • I have a million things to do today.
  • My homework is taking forever to get done.

 

For the KIBO’s Language activity, show students the large KIBO Says cards. Have students point out what they see on each block: the text, the icon, colors, the barcode, etc. Ask students: What part of the block is KIBO’s language? Is it the words, or the pictures, or something else? Once students identify the barcode as the answer, discuss other objects or places where they have encountered barcodes.

 

Then ask students: Do you think KIBO can think on its own? Can KIBO make its own program? Lead student-centered discussion on how robots are programmed by humans and cannot think for themselves. Everything that KIBO says and does is determined by how the programmer chooses the program, or set of instructions, for KIBO. For example, we say we want KIBO to move forward, but KIBO reads the barcodes for the Begin, Forward, and End blocks.

Closing Tech Circle

Activity 5: Programmer Says

(Suggested Time: 15 minutes)

In order to program the KIBO robot, students first need to learn KIBO’s language: the programming blocks! This activity is played like the traditional “Simon Says” game, in which students repeat an action if Simon says to do something. Briefly introduce each programming instruction and what it means (use only the blocks listed in the Materials section in this lesson).

Have the class stand up. Hold up one big KIBO icon at a time and say, “Programmer says to _________”. Go through each individual instruction a few times until the class seems to get it. Once students are familiar with each instruction, ask for volunteers to be the Programmer who gives the class full programs to run through (e.g. Begin, Spin, Forward, End). Just like in the real “Simon Says” game, the Programmer can try to be tricky! For example, if the Programmer forgets to give a Begin or End instruction, should the class still move? Just like Simon Says, if the Programmer forgets to say, “Programmer says to ___________”, then students should sit down! This will help reinforce the concept that KIBO is programmed by humans.

Anchor



Powerful Ideas of Computer Science
Hardware/Software, Algorithms, Representation

Powerful Ideas of Literacy
Summarizing, Sequencing, Descriptive Language in Writing

Students will be able to:

  • Understand why order matters when programming a robot or telling a story
  • Identify the different parts of the KIBO robot

Vocabulary covered:

  • Algorithm
  • Instruction
  • Order
  • Program
  • Scanner
  • Sequence
  • Main board
  • Motor
  • Wheels

Necessary Materials: Design Journal

Optional Resources: Lesson Slides, Lesson Video Tutorial

Warm Up

Activity 1: Where the Wild Things Are

(Suggested Time: 15 minutes)

Read the book Where the Wild Things Are as a class; if needed, read the book a second time. Lead a student-centered discussion that reviews the events of the story. You can prompt the students: Who can summarize the main events in this story? (e.g. first he made some mischief, then more, then yelled at his mother, etc.). Then ask students: What if the first scene was Max on a boat? How would that change the story? What about if Max had smelled the food before making more mischief? The purpose of this activity is to get students to think about sequencing in narrative.

Word Time

Activity 2: Writing Reflection

(Suggested Time: 20 minutes)

After you read the story, ask students: What if the first scene was Max on a boat? How would that change the story? Have students open up their design journals and write a new beginning to the story that has Max on a boat. The writing prompt is “Write a new opening to the story with Max on a boat. What does the reader need to know? How did Max get on the boat?”

Alternatively, after reading the story, have the students use one of the blank Design Journal pages included at the end of the packet to write about one of the following prompts (you should choose one for the entire class):

  • The strangest place you ever visited
  • A time you were mischievous (define for students) and your parents or teacher got upset with you

Encourage students to write creatively and express their ideas freely in their journals. Feel free to reinforce any writing skills they are learning in other lessons.

Opening Tech Circle

Activity 3: Program the Teacher with KIBO Blocks

(Suggested Time: 10 minutes)

Using the KIBO Says cards, students will work together as a class to “program” their teacher to move from one part of the room to the other. Be silly! An example would be for the students to “program” their teacher to move from the front of the room to the library area by using these blocks: Begin, Forward, Spin, Turn Left, Forward, Forward, End. The goal of this game is for students to practice sequencing as a class before working individually or in their small groups. Before the teacher-robot moves, students can make predictions about where the teacher-robot will end up. It may be helpful to let the students make mistakes in order to foster a discussion on sequencing and debugging.

 

Remind students: a program is a set of instructions that tells the robot what to do. KIBO’s program always starts with the green Begin block and the red End block. Everything you (the programmer) want KIBO to do goes in between those blocks and will happen in the same order that you place the blocks.

KIBO Time

Activity 4: Meet the KIBO Robot

(Suggested Time: 10 minutes)

Take out KIBOs and blocks. Explain to students that today they will be learning how to put together the different parts of the KIBO robot. Show students a KIBO robot body. Ask students: What parts do you see through the clear backside of KIBO? What do you think those parts do? What do the batteries do? What are some other objects you have seen that have the same function? (e.g. KIBO’s wheels are like the tires on a car)

Using the KIBO parts guide below, introduce the KIBO robot’s key parts and their functions. Teach the “Robot Parts Song” and have students sing and dance along. Explain to students that the song helps us understand how to put the KIBO robot together. Demonstrate how to attach the wheels, motors, and art platforms. If time permits, allow students to work in pairs to assemble their own KIBO robot.

Clean Up

Activity 5: Clean Up

(Suggested Time: 5 minutes)

Using your classroom organizational system, have students clean up their work areas and put away all KIBO parts and blocks in their appropriate spots.

Anchor



Powerful Ideas of Computer Science
Algorithms, Design Process

Powerful Ideas of Literacy
Descriptive Language in Writing

Students will be able to:

  • Tell and retell a story clearly and effectively 
  • Identify common errors with scanning KIBO programs and troubleshoot them 
  • Practice scanning programs with KIBO
  • Learn strategies for debugging and editing

Vocabulary covered:

  • Instruction
  • Program
  • Scanner

Necessary Materials: Design Journal

Optional Resources: Lesson Slides, Lesson Video Tutorial

Warm Up

Activity 1: Dance the Hokey-Pokey

(Suggested Time: 5 minutes)

Explain to students that today they will program KIBO to do the Hokey-Pokey. Sing and dance the Hokey Pokey as a class to make sure everyone knows and remembers it. Conclude with a “robot verse”:

You put your right hand in, 

You put your right hand out, 

You put your right hand in, 

And you shake it all about,

You do the hokey pokey

and you turn yourself around

That’s what it's all about. (clap, clap!)

2) left hand 

3) right foot 

4) left foot 

5) head

6) whole self

You put your robot in, you put your robot out,

You put your robot in, and you shake it all about.

You do the Hokey Pokey, and you turn yourself around.

And that’s what it’s all about. (Clap, clap!)

KIBO Time

Activity 2: Program the Hokey-Pokey

(Suggested Time: 20 minutes)

Take out KIBOs and blocks. Remind students how to assemble the KIBO blocks and scan a complete program with KIBO. Have several students share out their strategies for scanning KIBO. Individually or in pairs, students program their KIBOs to do the Hokey Pokey. If this activity is the first time students will be working formally in pairs, introduce the Job Cards so that students can practice taking turns either scanning the program or assisting the scanner. Examples of Job Cards are included in the Appendix.

Word Time

Activity 3: Hokey-Pokey Reflection

(Suggested Time: 10 minutes)

In their Design Journals, ask students to record their Hokey Pokey programs by using the KIBO stickers to write out the blocks in their program. Ask students: What is your favorite block in your program? What does the block do? How did the block help you program the Hokey Pokey? Provide an example if needed: My favorite block is the Spin block. The Spin block makes the robot go around in a circle. I used the Spin block so that the robot turns itself around (because that’s what it’s all about!)

Closing Tech Circle

Activity 4: Share Creations

(Suggested Time: 10 minutes)

When all groups are done with their Hokey-Pokey robot programs, ask the whole class to play their programs at once and dance the Hokey-Pokey! This is the first time that students engage in goal-oriented programming. Using the Discussion Sentence Starters anchor chart, ask students about their challenges of programming: What problems did you have when you were scanning blocks? Did you ever get an error message? Did you ever feel frustrated or disappointed? Why did you feel that way? Note down students’ responses on a piece of paper so that you can come back to these points in the next lesson.

Clean Up

Activity 5: Clean Up

(Suggested Time: 5 minutes)

Using your classroom organizational system, have students clean up their work areas and put away all KIBO parts and blocks in their appropriate spots.

KIBO Mastery Challenge A

Activity 6: KIBO Mastery Challenge A

(Suggested Time: 15 minutes)

In the Appendix, you will find KIBO Mastery Challenge A. Please hand out one assessment sheet to every child in your class. Read each question and option out loud to the group. Students can ask to have questions or options read out loud up to 3 times. Instruct children to circle only 1 answer per question. Review answers with students (now or at a later time) after children complete the assessment by themselves.

Anchor



Powerful Ideas of Computer Science
Debugging

Powerful Ideas of Literacy
Editing, Awareness of Audience

Students will be able to:

  • Identify common errors with scanning KIBO programs and troubleshoot them  
  • Practice scanning programs with KIBO 
  • Learn strategies for debugging and editing

Vocabulary covered:

  • Debug
  • Edit
  • Persistence
  • Reboot
  • Troubleshoot

Necessary Materials: Design Journal

Optional Resources: Lesson Slides, Lesson Video Tutorial

Warm Up

Activity 1: Tell a Story

(Suggested Time: 20 minutes)

Framing for the Teacher: Even the most basic forms of writing (letter and letter-like forms) require a high level of abstraction that speech does not. Education psychologist, Lev Vygotsky explained, “In learning to write, the child must disengage himself from the sensory aspects of speech and replace words by images of words” (Vygotsky, 2012, p.181). Writing requires symbolization of the sound image into written signs (letters, syllables, etc.). It is this abstract quality of written language, specifically double abstraction- abstraction from the sound of speech and abstraction from the interlocutor (the reader)- that makes it challenging. Of course, second graders are at the very beginning of this journey. The goal at this stage of development is to understand that even though all the details exist in your head, if you don’t provide them for your reader, your story won’t make sense. This is the debugging/editing challenge for students at this stage of development.

Split the class into two groups and have each group work together to write instructions on how to put together KIBO and make it move. Then gather the whole class and have the groups exchange their written instructions. Have each group read the other group’s instructions and explain the task based on what they understood from the instructions. This activity can be fun and light. The big idea is that it can be hard to communicate what’s in our head to someone or something else.

Explain to students that with writing there may be multiple ways to communicate the same thing, and even if we misspell a word or make a grammatical error, our message may still be clear. However, when robots or computers are the audience, we have to make sure to communicate in the way that the machines understand. There is much less margin for error.

Opening Tech Circle

Activity 2: Why is KIBO Confused?

(Suggested Time: 15 minutes)

In Lesson 3, students shared challenges of scanning KIBO blocks and other issues that they experienced while creating their Hokey-Hokey programs. Check back on your notes from that discussion and prepare an anchor chart noting 4-5 of these challenges on the left side of the chart, leaving the right side empty for students to provide solutions in this activity.

Present the anchor chart to students. Explain to students how in the previous lesson, students encountered different challenges, such as not being able to scan the blocks properly, seeing a red light or hearing a minor key sound when scanning the blocks, etc. Other examples of common errors can be found in this KIBO troubleshooting tip sheet: http://kinderlabrobotics.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/KIBO-10-Quick-Start-Guide.pdf.

Ask students to brainstorm 1-2 solutions for every solution. An example is provided below:

  • Challenge #1: It’s hard to scan the blocks. 
    • Solution #1: Separate the blocks instead of connecting the pegs. Scan each block individually.
    • Solution #2: Ask your partner to cover the other barcodes on the left and right of the block you’re trying to scan.
  • Challenge #2: When I accidentally scan the End block twice, it gives me a red light, and I have to scan the program all over again.
    • Solution #1: Tilt the KIBO immediately after scanning the block so that the barcode scanner doesn’t accidentally scan it twice.

Explain to students that debugging is a method used to understand how to fix things when engineers program robots, and the robots do not work. By identifying these problems and different solutions to solve them, students are debugging.

_______________________________________________________________________

Debugging is a word used in computer science to describe when people find errors in their computer programs and use different strategies to solve the problem. While the word “bug” was used in other scientific fields, the word “debugging” is attributed to Admiral Grace Hopper, who back in the 1940s found a moth stuck inside the computer (computers used to be that big!), which caused an error in the system. She was able to resolve the error by taking out the bug, hence the word “debugging”!

For further activity ideas and examples of pictures, check out the following resources:

https://www.npr.org/sections/alltechconsidered/2015/11/23/457129179/the-future-of-nanotechnology-and-computers-so-small-you-can-swallow-them

KIBO Time

Activity 3: Free Play

(Suggested Time: 10 minutes)

Take out KIBOs and blocks. This activity is a great opportunity for students to freely explore with the KIBO robot and the programming blocks. Encourage students to try to make these mistakes purposefully and to practice debugging! By the end of this activity, students should feel comfortable scanning a complete program onto KIBO.

Word Time

Activity 4: Debugging Reflection

(Suggested Time: 10 minutes)

Pass out students’ Design Journals. Ask students to reflect about one of the problems they had with KIBO. What was the problem? Ask students to explain why KIBO wasn’t understanding what they wanted KIBO to do. How did you change the way you scanned (communicated) so that KIBO would understand? Students can reflect in their Design Journals by drawing a picture of how they debugged, or if they can, write about their problem solving strategy.

Clean Up

Activity 5: Clean Up

(Suggested Time: 5 minutes)

Using your classroom organizational system, have students clean up their work areas and put away all KIBO parts and blocks in their appropriate spots

Anchor



Powerful Ideas of Computer Science
Control Structures, Representation, Sensors

Powerful Ideas of Literacy
Spelling-Sound Correspondence

Students will be able to:

  • Distinguish between human senses and robot sensors 
  • Use the KIBO Sound Sensor with its appropriate Wait for Clap block
  • Record a sound clip successfully using the Sound Recorder module and Sound Recorder blocks

Vocabulary covered:

  • Attribute
  • Senses
  • Sensor
  • Event
  • Circle
  • Record
  • Sound
  • Square
  • Triangle

Optional Resources: Lesson Slides, Lesson Video Tutorial

Warm Up

Activity 1: What did Max Sense

(Suggested Time: 15 min)

Throughout the Where the Wild Things Are story, Max uses his five senses: taste, smell, touch, hearing, and sight. Ask students: What body parts do humans use to sense things in our environment? As a class, decide on a movement that represents each of the five senses. For example, you might decide to point to your tongue for taste, nose for smell, fingers for touch, ear for hearing, and eyes for sight.

At your discretion, reread the story as a class, or select pages from the story. As you read, pause at different points and ask students to do the movement that corresponds to what Max is sensing. This is an important chance to point out to students that literature “shows” instead of “tells.” For example, when we read, “The wild things roared their terrible roars and gnashed their terrible teeth and rolled their terrible eyes and showed their terrible claws,” we understand what exactly Max was seeing (and maybe even smelling if they had bad breath with those terrible teeth!). Explain to students how literature sometimes uses “poetic” language, whereas computer science uses literal and command-oriented code language.

 

Below are examples of quotes from the story to pause and have students identify Max’s senses:

  • Taste
    • “So he was sent to bed without eating anything.”
  • Smell
    • “Then all around from far away, across the world, he smelled good things to eat, so he gave up being King of where all the Wild Things are”
  • Touch
    • “The night Max wore his wolf suit and made mischief of one kind and another”
    • “and into the night of his very own room where he found his supper waiting for him and it was still hot.”
  • Hearing
    • “His mother called him ‘WILD THING’”
    • “And they were frightened and called him the most Wild Thing of all and made him King of all Wild Things”
    • “But the wild things cried, “Oh please don’t go we’ll eat you up-we love you so!” And Max said, “No!” 
    • “The wild things roared their terrible roars and gnashed their terrible teeth and rolled their terrible eyes and showed their terrible claws, but Max stepped into his private boat and waved goodbye”
  • Sight
    • “That very night in Max’s room, a forest grew...”
    • “When he came to the place where the Wild Things are...terrible claws”
    • “Till Max said BE STILL...blinking once”
    • “The wild things roared their terrible roars and gnashed their terrible teeth and rolled their terrible eyes and showed their terrible claws, but Max stepped into his private boat and waved goodbye”
    • “and into the night of his very own room where he found his supper waiting for him and it was still hot.”
Opening Tech Circle

Activity 2: KIBO Sound Sensor

(Suggested Time: 5 min)

Take out KIBOs and blocks. Show the Wait for Clap block and the Sound sensor and create an example program together. Run the program, and have students discuss what the robot is doing. Introduce the term event, which is an action that causes something to happen. The action here is the clap, which causes KIBO to continue its program. All of the sensors that KIBO has (sound, light, and distance) use events to trigger KIBO which they will experiment with in later lessons.

Unplugged Time

Activity 3: Shape Shifting

(Suggested Time: 10 min)

Show students the large KIBO Says cards depicting the three orange Sound Recorder blocks: Play Circle, Play Square, and Play Triangle. First demonstrate the game as a class. Ask for three student volunteers to choose a sound or action to go with each shape. For example, a student might decide to jump on one foot for the Circle, another student might decide to yell “Hooray!” for the Triangle, and a third student might decide to hold up a book for the Square. To play the game, explain to students that when you hold up one of the three shape cards, they should only perform the action associated with that shape.

Once students are comfortable with the game, split into small groups and have students take turns deciding the actions for the shapes. Have students recreate the shape cards using construction paper and markers. The purpose of this activity is to get students comfortable with cause and effect; students must shift or alter their actions depending on the shape of the card. This will also help students better understand how the KIBO Sound Recorder module works in the next demonstration activity

 

Closing Tech Circle

Activity 4: KIBO Sound Recorder

(Suggested Time 5 min)

Show students the KIBO Sound Recorder module. Demonstrate with a model program how they can make three different recordings by pressing and holding down on the three shape buttons on the module. Note that the Sound Recorder must be connected to power by inserting the module into the KIBO body before recording.

 

KIBO Time

Activity 5: Free Play

(Suggested Time: 10 min)

Individually or in pairs, students should take this time to explore the Sound Sensor and Sound Recorder modules freely. By the end of this free-exploration, students should understanding the difference between sound input (i.e., KIBO needs to hear the clap using the Sound Sensor before proceeding) and sound output (i.e., students record the specific sounds that they want KIBO to play using the Sound Recorder). Encourage students to try other noises, like stomping or ringing a bell, to trigger the Sound Sensor!

Clean Up

Activity 6: Clean Up

(Suggested Time: 5 min)

Using your classroom organizational system, have students clean up their work areas and put away all KIBO parts and blocks in their appropriate spots.

KIBO Mastery Challenge B

Activity 7: KIBO Mastery Challenge B

(Suggested Time: 10 minutes)

In the Appendix, you will find KIBO Mastery Challenge B. Please hand out one assessment sheet to every child in your class. Read each question and option out loud to the group. Students can ask to have questions or options read out loud up to 3 times. Instruct children to circle only 1 answer per question. Review answers with students (now or at a later time) after children complete the assessment by themselves.

Anchor



Powerful Ideas of Computer Science
Algorithms, Modularity, Representation

Powerful Ideas of Literacy
Descriptive Language in Writing

Students will be able to:

  • Program KIBO to sing and dance to the “If You’re Wild and You Know It” song

Vocabulary covered:

  • Senses
  • Sensor
  • Event
  • Circle
  • Record
  • Sound
  • Square
  • Triangle

Necessary Materials: Design Journal

Optional Resources: Lesson Slides, Lesson Video Tutorial

Warm Up

Activity 1: If You’re Wild and You Know It

(Suggested Time: 5 minutes)

In the story Where the Wild Things Are, Max acts wild. Students will work individually or in pairs to program KIBO to dance a version of the song “If You’re Happy and You Know It,” Wild-fied, “If You’re Wild and You Know It”. Sing the song together as a class.

If you're wild and you know it, clap your hands (clap-clap)

If you're wild and you know it, clap your hands (clap-clap)

If you're wild and you know it, then your face will surely show it If you're wild and you know it, clap your hands. (clap-clap)

  1. stomp your feet
  2. shout “Hooray!”
  3. 4. do all three (clap-clap, stomp-stomp, “Hoo-ray!”)
KIBO Time

Activity 2: Program “If You’re Wild and You Know It” 

(Suggested Time: 30 minutes)

Take out KIBOs and blocks. Before students begin programming KIBO to dance, have students take out their Design Journals and write a response to the following prompt: What do you wish your robot would do to show that she/he is happy (e.g., dance a particular dance, sing a particular song)? Have a few students read out their responses and then explain that today KIBO will follow the instructions of the classic song “If You’re Happy and You Know It,” but in a few lessons, the students will get to decide for themselves what KIBO does to show she/he’s happy!

Students should program their robots to move in any wild way during the lyrics “If You’re Wild and You Know It” but include the program instructions that have KIBO wait to hear a clap (representing the lyrics “Clap your Hands”) before KIBO begins moving. Students can choose as few or as many blocks as they would like to put after the “Wait for Clap” block.

This is an example of a program that teachers can use as a model:

Word Time

Activity 3: Project Reflection

(Suggested Time: 10 minutes)

Before sharing their projects, have students take out their Design Journals and use the KIBO stickers to write out their program. Where did they choose to place the Wait for Clap block? What was fun or challenging about creating their program? Did their program get KIBO to do what they wanted? Students should document their reflections in their Design Journals and are encouraged to bring their reflections to share in the Technology Circle.

Closing Tech Circle

Activity 4: Share Creations

 (Suggested Time: 10 minutes)

Have students sit in a technology circle to share their programs. Encourage students to verbalize their thinking and reasoning behind their program. For example, ask students: Where did you decide to add the Wait for Clap block? What were the different ways you tried to trigger the Sound sensor (clapping, talking, etc.)? What kinds of sounds did you record? Why did you choose a particular block in your program? Students can also use the discussion sentence starters from the anchor chart to talk about their creations.

Clean Up

Activity 5: Clean Up

(Suggested Time: 5 minutes)

Using your classroom organizational system, have students clean up their work areas and put away all KIBO parts and blocks in their appropriate spots.

Anchor



Powerful Ideas of Computer Science
Control Structures, Modularity

Powerful Ideas of Literacy
Repetition as a Literary Device, Repetition in Word Forms

Students will be able to:

  • Identify patterns in code sequences and rewrite codes using repeat loops
  • Use KIBO number parameters to make a program that loops a certain of times
  • Understand how repetition is used in stories and songs

Vocabulary covered:

  • Loop
  • Parameter
  • Pattern
  • Repeat

Necessary Materials: Design Journal

Optional Resources: Lesson Slides, Lesson Video Tutorial

Warm Up

Activity 1: Repetition in Stories and Songs

(Suggested Time: 15 minutes)

Throughout the book Where the Wild Things Are, certain phrases and words are repeated multiple times. Reread the “terrible pages” and come up with a list of what phrases or words are repeated (e.g., terrible, wild things, eat you up, etc.). Ask students: Why might the author have done that? What purpose does that serve for the reader? The purpose of this activity is to remind students that repetition is essential in language, literature, and, as they will learn today, coding as well.

OR

If you feel the students/class could use a break from Where the Wild Things Are, choose a song the students like instead. Hand out the lyrics to the class, play the song for the class, and ask students, as the song is playing, to circle repeating stanzas. The purpose of this activity is to remind students that repetition is essential in language, literature, and, as they will learn today, coding as well.

Opening Tech Circle

Activity 2: Toothbrush Exercise

(Suggested Time: 15 minutes)

Have students think about the way they brush their teeth. Ask students: Are there actions that you have to repeat? (e.g. moving the toothbrush from left to right) Are there motions that only happen once? (e.g. squeezing out toothpaste) Hand out Toothbrush Sequence Pictures to children. Working in pairs, have students arrange the pictures in order, noting which pictures should be repeated. Then have students tape or glue the pictures in order in their Design Journals. Once pairs finish, ask students: Are there steps missing? What are the missing steps and where do they fit in the sequence? Draw an arrow and describe the step that is missing. If needed, provide an example of how to draw an arrow between two pictures to write down the missing step.

KIBO Time

Activity 3: KIBO Repeat with Numbers

(Suggested Time: 15 minutes)

Take out the KIBOs and blocks. Using the large KIBO Says cards first, show students a sample KIBO program that has repeating blocks (see examples below). Ask students: What is the repeating pattern in this program? How many times does it repeat?

As a class, look back at your example KIBO programs with repeating patterns. Ask students: Is there a way I could make this program shorter? Demonstrate to students that the Repeat and End Repeat blocks can be used to make programs that are shorter and more efficient. 

Make a sample program using the Repeat blocks and the Repeat Forever parameter card. Emphasize that the robot only repeats the instructions in between the Repeat and the End Repeat blocks. Note to students how the robot will not stop unless you press the button (to stop it). Try another model program using the Repeat 2, 3, or 4 parameters.

Distinguish this kind of repetition from literature, where a repetition may take place pages apart and can include slight variations. For example, in the story Where the Wild Things Are, the word “terrible” was repeated several times in different parts of the story.

Have students explore their own programs using the Repeat blocks. The emphasis here should be using proper syntax, rather than scanning the program onto KIBO. One suggestion for this activity is to have students create their KIBO programs using the blocks first. Then, students can move to a testing station in a designated location in the classroom, where they can test to make sure their programs work.

Clean Up

Activity 4: Clean Up

(Suggested Time: 5 minutes)

Using your classroom organizational system, have students clean up their work areas and put away all KIBO parts and blocks in their appropriate spots.

KIBO Mastery Challenge C

Activity 5: KIBO Mastery Challenge C

(Suggested Time: 10 minutes)

In the Appendix, you will find KIBO Mastery Challenge C. Please hand out one assessment sheet to every child in your class. Read each question and option out loud to the group. Students can ask to have questions or options read out loud up to 3 times. Instruct children to circle only 1 answer per question. Review answers with students (now or at a later time) after children complete the assessment by themselves.

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Powerful Ideas of Computer Science
Control Structures, Debugging, Sensors

Powerful Ideas of Literacy
Descriptive Language in Writing

Students will be able to:

  • Compare and contrast human senses and robot sensors
  • Successfully test a KIBO program using the Light sensor

Vocabulary covered:

  • Senses
  • Sensor
  • Event

Necessary Materials: Design Journal

Optional Resources: Lesson Slides, Lesson Video Tutorial

Warm Up

Activity 1:

My Five Senses

(Suggested Time: 20 minutes)

Pass out students’ Design Journals. Read the story My Five Senses by Aliki and discuss scenarios in which students might use each of their five senses. Then, in their Design Journals, have students choose one of the five senses and draw a picture of a situation in which they would use that sense.

Opening Tech Circle

Activity 2:

KIBO Repeat with Light Sensor

(Suggested Time: 10 minutes)

Take out the KIBOs and blocks. Explain to students that KIBO has some of the same senses that we have as humans (the ability to “see” light and dark, to feel touch, to speak) and that today they will learn how KIBO is able to “see” light and dark). Explain that KIBO needs special programming instructions to tell KIBO what to do with the information from its Light sensor. Show the Repeat and End Repeat blocks, which are now familiar, and the new Until Light/Until Dark parameter cards. Create two example programs together, one which uses the Until Light parameter and the other with the Until Dark parameter. Run the programs, and have students discuss what the robot is doing in each scenario.

KIBO Time

Activity 3:

Free Play With Repeats

(Suggested Time: 25 minutes)

Individually or in pairs, students will create programs using the Light sensor. Free play with the sensor will allow students to tinker and explore the sensitivity of the sensor. Students can shine a flashlight to trigger the Light sensor. Emphasize that the Repeat blocks with sensor parameters mean that KIBO will continue to perform the actions inside of the Repeat loop until the environment changes to the specific parameter.

Clean Up

Activity 4: 

Clean Up

(Suggested Time: 5 minutes)

Using your classroom organizational system, have students clean up their work areas and put away all KIBO parts and blocks in their appropriate spots.

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Powerful Ideas of Computer Science
Control Structures, Debugging, Sensors

Powerful Ideas of Literacy
Identify Conflict and Resolution, Making Predictions

Students will be able to:

  • Successfully test a conditional KIBO program using the Distance and Light sensors  
  • Identify situations that would require an If statement or a Repeat loop

Vocabulary covered:

  • Branched program
  • Conditional
  • Event

Necessary Materials: Design Journal

Optional Resources: Lesson Slides, Lesson Video Tutorial

Warm Up

Activity 1:

Writing an Alternative Story

(Suggested Time: 20 minutes)

The purpose of this activity is to have students think creatively about what could have happened in Where the Wild Things Are if Max had done things differently. If necessary, reread the story to students.

 

Below are some examples from the story. Ask students to think about these hypothetical scenarios, and have several students share out their hypotheses.

  • What would have happened if Max hadn’t felt wild and yelled?
  • If Max had made mischief of one kind, but not another…
  • If Max had not responded to his mother, “I’ll eat you up,”…
  • If Max had been afraid of the wild things, then…
  • If Max had never stopped the wild rumpus, then…

 

Now the students have the opportunity to turn these suggested alternative stories into compositional texts.

Students will write their alternative stories in their Design Journals. This activity is also an opportunity to review whatever skills the students have most recently learned in writing (e.g. strategies for organization, capitalization of  proper nouns, etc.).

Opening Tech Circle

Activity 2: 

KIBO Repeat with Distance Sensor

(Suggested Time: 15 minutes)

Take out the KIBOs and blocks, then introduce the Distance sensor. Create two example programs together, one which uses the Until Near parameter and the other which uses the Until Far parameter. Run the programs, and have students discuss what the robot is doing.

KIBO Time

Activity 3:

Free Play

(Suggested Time: 20 minutes)

Individually or in pairs, students will create programs using the Distance sensor, just as they had in the previous lesson with the Light sensor. Free play with the sensor will allow students to tinker and explore the sensitivity of the sensor. Students can place objects in front of the robot, triggering the Distance sensor. Emphasize that the Repeat blocks with sensor parameters mean that KIBO will continue to perform the actions inside of the Repeat loop until the environment changes to the specific parameter.

Clean Up

Activity 4: 

Clean Up

(Suggested Time: 5 minutes)

Using your classroom organizational system, have students clean up their work areas and put away all KIBO parts and blocks in their appropriate spots.

Optional Extension Activities

Optional Extension Activity: 

KIBO If Statements

If students need more time exploring repeats with sensors, feel free to skip this activity. This is an extension activity for students who have mastered repeat loops with sensors and are ready to learn conditionals with the Begin If and End If blocks.

 

Explain to students that in the programs they have learned so far, KIBO has only one choice of what instructions to do next. Now they will learn an instruction that gives KIBO two choices, and the Light and Distance sensors will help KIBO decide which set of instructions to follow each time the program is run.

 

Introduce the If and End If blocks, as well as the Near/Far and Light/Dark parameters. Demonstrate what happens when you do and do not put your hand in front of the Distance sensor when the Near/Far parameters are used. Create another program using the Light sensor and Light/Dark parameters and demonstrate what happens when you do and do not shine a light into the sensor.

Discuss situations in the real world where someone may have to make a choice depending on the circumstances of the environment. For example, “If it is rainy out, I will bring an umbrella”. Connect this idea to the Writing an Alternative Story activity, in which students came up with creative endings to the Where the Wild Things Are story.

 

Optional Extension Activity:

Nested Statements

This is an extension activity for students who have mastered single repeat loops and conditional statements. If time permits and students are ready for more advanced learning with KIBO, then show examples of nested loops and nested statements. If students need more time exploring repeats and ifs separately, feel free to skip this activity.

 

These are the most complex kinds of programs students can create using KIBO. Nested loops are a way to make even more efficient programs, in which parts of instructions are repeated a different number of times. Show an example of a nested loop to students. Ask students: Which blocks are in the inner loop? How many times does it repeat? Which blocks are in the outer loop? How many times does it repeat?

Just like there can be a repeat inside of another repeat, nested statements are created using any kind of statement (if or repeat) inside of another statement (if or repeat). Before showing the example of a nested statement with KIBO, have students imagine how an automatic faucet works. Ask students: What happens when you put your hand close to the sensor? Does this happen every time you make that movement? Walk through the scenario with students: Every time (repeat forever) you move your hands close to the sensor (if), the water runs (end if) (end repeat).

 

Demonstrate another example with a stoplight. Ask students: What do you do if the light turns green? If the light turns yellow? If the light turns red? Explain to students how they could use multiple if statements to demonstrate how a driver would make a decision depending on the color of the stoplight.

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Powerful Ideas of Computer Science
Design Process

Powerful Ideas of Literacy
Writing Process

Students will be able to:

  • Utilize the Writing Process by writing their Wild Rumpus composition 
  • Decide which of their ideas can and cannot be translated into KIBO programs

Necessary Materials: Design Journal

Optional Resources: Lesson Slides, Lesson Video Tutorial

Warm Up

Activity 1:

Wild Rumpus Composition

(Suggested Time: 30 Minutes)

First ask students to take an index card and write down their top three activities they would have in their own Wild Rumpus. You might first provide an example: In my Wild Rumpus, I would have an awesome dance party, some howling at the moon, and making s’mores. Ask students: What three things would you have in your Wild Rumpus? Students should refer back to this index card throughout the final project.

 

Students will engage in the Writing Process to plan out their Wild Rumpus composition using their Design Journals. Based on their three ideas from the index card, explain to students they will write a story about their Wild Rumpus. Below are examples of things to include in their composition, as well as writing tips:

  • Identify the audience and purpose of writing (Who will be reading your ideas for your Wild Rumpus? What

might they want to know about your project?)

  • Use prewriting strategies to generate ideas before writing Use organizational strategies to keep track of the different project components
  • Organize writing to include a beginning, middle, and end (How does the Wild Rumpus start, what happens during it, and how does it end?)

Organize writing to include a beginning, middle, and end (How does the Wild Rumpus start, what happens during it, and how does it end?)

Opening Tech Circle

Activity 2:

Writing vs. Coding

(Suggested Time: 10 minutes)

This activity provides a chance for students to reflect on the constraints and affordances of each medium, writing and coding. Have students come together in a technology circle. Ask students:

  • What activities did you include in your Wild Rumpus?
  • Are there certain activities you wrote about that you can code with KIBO?
  • Are there certain activities you wrote about that might not work with KIBO? How will you change your idea so that it makes sense for KIBO?
KIBO Time

Activity 3:

Begin Designing Projects

(Suggested Time: 20 minutes)

Explain to students: Now that you have written about your Wild Rumpus, start planning your KIBO Wild Rumpus!” Have students take out their Design Journals. Students will go through each step of the Design Process as they create their final KIBO projects. First, students will be asked: “What activities do you want your robot to do in your Wild Rumpus?” Students’ responses should reflect any changes they decide to make after the class discussion on writing versus coding. Then students will be asked to imagine: “What will your robot look like?”. This provides an opportunity for students to begin imagining how they will decorate their KIBO with arts and crafts materials. Encourage students to use colored pencils or crayons so that they can fully imagine what their end product will look like

Closing Tech Circle

Activity 4:

Technology Circle

(Suggested Time: 10 minutes)

Come together in a technology circle. Have students share out their initial ideas for their KIBO projects. Ask students: “What ideas do you have for your KIBO Wild Rumpus? How does that idea relate to what you had written in your Wild Rumpus Composition? What will your KIBO look like?

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Powerful Ideas of Computer Science
Design Process

Powerful Ideas of Literacy
Writing Process

Students will be able to:

  • Demonstrate the Design Process in full by planning, designing, and creating a final KIBO project

Necessary Materials: Design Journal

Optional Resources: Lesson Slides, Lesson Video Tutorial

Warm Up

Activity 1:

Plan and Create

(Suggested Time: 20 minutes)

Have students take out their Design Journals. Ask students: “What KIBO parts and blocks will you need for your program? What kinds of arts and crafts materials will you use to decorate your KIBO?” Have students use the KIBO Stickers to write what they think their program will be. Remind students that if their first program does not work the way they want to, that’s okay! The point of this activity is to have some type of plan before starting to code the Wild Rumpus using KIBO. Encourage students to challenge themselves and make program plans that will use advanced parts such as sensors, Repeat loops, and If statements.

KIBO Time

Activity 2:

Coding the Wild Rumpus 

(Suggested Time: 20 minutes)

Once students have their plans in their Design Journals, they are ready to start building their program with KIBO! Take out KIBOs and blocks. Using their design plans, students will turn their compositional Wild Rumpus into a programmed Wild Rumpus.

By this point, students have had several opportunities to work in pairs or small groups. Feel free to continue using the Job Cards to enable collaboration and ensure that each student has the opportunity to be hands-on with KIBO.

Word Time

Activity 3:

Test and Improve

(Suggested Time: 10 minutes)

Explain to students that now that they have tested out their initial program with KIBO, they will evaluate, or test, to see what changes they may want to make to their projects. Have students take out their Design Journals and use the checklist to see how their robot is coming along. Read aloud each of the checklist questions and have students mark their progress by circling the happy face, neutral face, or sad face. Then have students reflect on the changes they will make to their program based on this feedback.

Clean Up

Activity 4: 

Clean Up and Prepare for Next Day

(Suggested Time: 10 minutes)

Using your classroom organizational system, have students clean up their work areas and put away all KIBO parts and blocks in their appropriate spots. If your classroom has enough space, designate an area of the room where students can save parts of their project. Explain to students that the next time, students will make changes to their projects and get feedback from their peers. Make sure to acknowledge students’ persistence and effort as they spend time testing and improving their final KIBO projects - making a final project is hard work and requires time, patience, and feedback from others!

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Powerful Ideas of Computer Science
Design Process

Powerful Ideas of Literacy
Writing Process

Students will be able to:

  • Demonstrate the Design Process in full by planning, designing, and creating a final KIBO project

Necessary Materials: Design Journal

Optional Resources: Lesson Slides, Lesson Video Tutorial

Warm Up

Activity 1:

Revise Projects

(Suggested Time: 15 minutes)

Now that students have ideas for how they will make changes to their KIBO project, have students take out KIBOs and incorporate those changes!

Opening Tech Circle

Activity 2:

Peer Feedback

(Suggested Time: 10 minutes)

Split students into pairs. One student (Student A) will share their revised project to their partner (Student B) for 3 minutes. Then Student B will give feedback for 2 minutes. Then switch! Encourage students to say one thing they liked about their partner’s project and one suggestion for how to improve their partner’s project.

Unplugged Time

Activity 3:

Collaboration Web

(Suggested Time: 10 minutes)

A collaboration web is a tool used to foster collaboration and support. Each child receives a printout with their photograph in the center of the page and the names and photographs of all the other children in the class arranged in a circle surrounding the central photo. Prepare these printouts ahead of time.

 

Pass out each student’s Collaboration Web. Have students draw lines on their Collaboration Webs from their picture in the middle to pictures of other students in the class who gave them good pieces of feedback or helped in a different way. Encourage students to continue filling out their Webs as they continue with their final projects.

KIBO Time

Activity 4: 

Decorating KIBO

(Suggested Time: 20 minutes)

Have students make their Wild Rumpus come to life using arts and crafts materials to decorate their KIBO! Refer back to the KIBO resources on how to secure decorations onto KIBO using the different art platforms. Students should also take this time to incorporate any changes to their project based on their peer feedback.

Clean Up

Activity 5: 

Clean Up

(Suggested Time: 5 minutes)

Using your classroom organizational system, have students clean up their work areas and put away all KIBO parts and blocks in their appropriate spots.

Anchor



Powerful Ideas of Computer Science
Design Process

Powerful Ideas of Literacy
Writing Process

Students will be able to:

  • Share final projects with peers, family and community members

Necessary Materials: Design Journal

Optional Resources: Lesson Slides, Lesson Video Tutorial

Warm Up

Activity 1:

Prepare for Sharing

(Suggested Time: 5 minutes)

Ask students to test their final program one last time individually so that it is ready for sharing! If students took apart their codes after the last class, have students take this time to reassemble their program and secure their decorations onto KIBO.

Opening Tech Circle

Activity 2:

Share Creations

(Suggested Time: 20 minutes)

During the final presentations, have students present their Wild Rumpus compositions and KIBO projects. Students can share their final projects altogether in a technology circle, or as a gallery walk, in which half of the students walk around the classroom to each project while the other half present their projects. Then the two groups switch. Students should share:

  • their robots and decorations
  • why they chose the features they did for their robot
  • the final program and what each block and module represent
  • anything that was hard, easy, surprising, interesting, etc. about the process
  • which peers did they collaborate with the most (based on their Collaboration Web) and want to thank personally (e.g., with a high five, thank you card, etc.)
Clean Up

Activity 3: 

Clean Up

(Suggested Time: 5 minutes)

Using your classroom organizational system, have students clean up their work areas and put away all KIBO parts and blocks in their appropriate spots.

Word Time

Activity 4:

Wild Rumpus Reflection

(Suggested Time: 15 minutes)

Have students take out their Design Journals and answer the four reflection questions. Then have students complete the Student Perceptions Survey. Explain to students that they should be as honest as possible when answering how they felt doing these activities. As students are reflecting in their Design Journals, take pictures of students’ final projects to share with families and community members. Pictures should include both the decorated KIBO and the full code.

KIBO Mastery Challenge D

Activity 5:

KIBO Mastery Challenge D

(Suggested Time: 10 minutes)

In the Appendix, you will find KIBO Mastery Challenge D. Please hand out one assessment sheet to every child in your class. Read each question and option out loud to the group. Students can ask to have questions or options read out loud up to 3 times. Instruct children to circle only 1 answer per question. Review answers with students (now or at a later time) after children complete the assessment by themselves.

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