Since the introduction of the pacemaker, lithium batteries were used to sustain power in implantable medical devices. Reasons that lithium batteries were the most popular power source include their comparatively compact sizes and long durability up to 10 years (approaches). However, there are safety risks and compatibility difficulties involved with using lithium batteries in a human body. Understanding these challenges gives context to the significance of our group’s research on alternative energy sources to implantable medical devices. Take a look at the usage of lithium batteries in pacemakers. There are two sources of biological incompatibility between lithium batteries and the human body. Lithium has extremely high specific heat, making it an ideal source of energy. However, because reacts violently with water, non-aqueous electrolytes must be used. Because most biological reactions occur in an aqueous environment, lithium batteries are hence incompatible to the environment within the human body. Secondly, electrical impulses are transmitted to the heart by a lead, which is attached to the pulse generator on the pacemaker by the connector block. The tip of the lead is implanted into the endocardial surface of the heart (trends). Metals are also a highly incompatible material with biotic tissues.