Posts by: Mulugeta Gebrehiwot Berhe

The United Nations Guidance for Effective Mediation recognizes mediation as one of the most effective methods of preventing, managing and above all, resolving conflicts. To be effective, however, a mediation process requires more than the appointment of a high-profile individual to act as a third party. The conflicting parties should at least consent for […]

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The United Nations and almost every single foreign government concerned with Ethiopia has called for a ceasefire. But what does this actually mean? What is a ceasefire and how can it be secured?

This blog post explores some of the complexities of a ceasefire agreement (CFA). Ceasefire has no specific meaning in law, but […]

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Why Ethiopia is in deep trouble, and how it got here” by Mulugeta G. Behre is originally published in The Conversation, February 2, 2020

Ethiopia has seen dramatic transformation and change over the past century. Two of the biggest changes were the victory in 1991 of the Ethiopian People’s Revolutionary Democratic Front […]

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Ethiopia’s Prime Minister Hailemariam Dessalegn resigned on February 15. He is “employee of the month” for March not for what he did, but what he failed to do. In the five and a half years in which he presided over Ethiopia, he allowed the country to drift towards turmoil. Ethiopia today is at grave risk of internal conflict and is unable to play its essential role as a bastion of stability and peacemaking in the Horn of Africa.

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The African Peace and Security Architecture (APSA) is a set of norms and structures developed and designed to enable Africa with its peace and security affairs. It is an important instrument that enabled Africa gain significant success in its efforts to promote stability in Africa. The APSA was designed in the early 2000s and Africa needs to fully implement its norms and fully utilize its instruments. There is also a need to address gaps and redundancies so that it fits to the current context of new internal and global challenges.

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The Ethiopian state underwent major restructuring at the beginning of the 1990s. It replaced a once highly-centralised state with a federal system, adopting a democratic constitution, the transfer of power through elections, and the recognition of the rights associated with freedom of expression.

More specifically, the Ethiopian security sector was transformed from 1991 onwards; political changes led to a new conception of threats and security needs, and the institutional structure of the country’s security agencies was brought into alignment with the new federal arrangements. The defence review was developed in the context of this wider security sector transformation.

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