De Ruiter, J.P. (2017). The asymmetric redundancy of gesture and speech. In Church, R.B., Alibali, M.W., & Kelly, S.D. (eds). Why gesture? How the hands function in speaking, thinking and communicating John Benjamins Publishing Company, Amsterdam.

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A number of studies from the last decades have demonstrated that the iconic gestures are shaped not only by our mental imagery but also, quite strong-
ly, by structural properties of the accompanying speech. These findings are problematic for the central assumption in the Sketch Model (De Ruiter, 2000) about the function of representational gesture. I suggest a seemingly small but fundamental modification to the processing assumptions in the Sketch Model that not only accommodates the discussed empirical findings, but also explains many other well-known gesture phenomena. The new model also generates new and testable predictions regarding the relationship between gesture and speech.