On the Other Side of the Border: Migrants ‘Return Home,’ by Daniella Burgi-Palomino

The Center for Returned Migrants
The Center for Returned Migrants

“They tell me that I have fire in my feet because I never stop moving,” Sister Valdete says with a twinkle in her eye. She continues talking, almost out of breath, her hands moving to match the urgency in her voice. On a hot spring day in 2012, I found myself in Tegucigalpa, Honduras with my colleagues visiting the Centro de Atención al Migrante Retornado (the Center for Returned Migrants or CAMR). Initiated in 2000 by the Scalabrini Sisters (Sister Valdete’s order), the Center aims to receive deported Honduran migrants from the U.S. and support their immediate needs upon their return. There are currently two such centers in the country, one in Tegucigalpa and one in San Pedro Sula, both located immediately next to the international airports in each city. Sister Valdete, the lively, unassuming, and barely five-foot-tall director of CAMR, has been running the Tegucigalpa center almost since its inception and has not stopped moving since in order to ensure that migrants get the best possible treatment upon their return.

On this particular day, there are no scheduled flights but Sister Valdete nonetheless explains the process to us. A few months into 2012, the Center has already witnessed a higher number of returning migrant flights than during the same months of the previous year. Currently, three flights a week of approximately 120-150 people each arrive, totaling more than 1,000 migrants per month.[1] The migrants are picked up from all over the U.S., and with flights covering any place between the East and West Coast, a passenger could easily be on a plane for over ten hours. All migrants fly handcuffed for the entire duration of the flight to ensure the “safety” of the U.S. Immigrations and Customs Enforcement officers on board, the Sister tells us as her voice rises and her face flushes red.

“Is this correct? Does this seem right to you?” she asks us, raising her voice further; the answer is implicit in her tone. Often migrants barely get a chance to drink water or go to the bathroom, so Sister Valdete and her staff greet them upon their arrival with water and show them the way to the restrooms. The Center then allows them to make free phone calls to tell their family members of their arrival and, in some cases, supports migrants with small amounts of cash for transportation back to their communities. We ask her how many of the deported migrants have criminal backgrounds.

“Not many,” she responds, sighing and looking through her records for the next incoming flight. She is well aware of the stereotype in both Honduras and the U.S. that many of the deported migrants are dangerous and have criminal records. On that particular flight, only two migrants are listed as having a criminal background according to the information provided to her before every flight. Two out of 120. Between ten to fifteen women, less than ten percent, make up every flight. A woman in her sixties once arrived in her pajamas, the Sister tells us, shaking her head. The woman never got the chance to change her clothes after she was arrested in the U.S. and subsequently deported, despite having lived in the U.S. for over twenty years. Her relatives, all in the U.S., were now searching for a coyote, or smuggler, to bring her back.

Sister Valdete has had several confrontations with Honduran government officials on the issue of the exact landing location of migrant-carrying planes at the airport. Government officials always seem concerned that these planes interfere with commercial flights, but Sister Valdete emphasizes that it is ultimately a question of “image” for them, a worry that the planes might taint visitors’ impression of the country.[2]

Sister Valdete and the author
Sister Valdete (center) and the author (left)

“I was on TV and everything fighting them,” she says proudly. I wonder where this woman gets her energy.

A day later, we take a bus to San Pedro Sula and I get the chance to witness the arrival of a plane at this center. When my colleague and I enter the main room where the migrants wait, we are practically the only women; the room is overwhelmingly male and young. A hundred or so sit, waiting for volunteer staff to call them for interviews. The majority of migrants have few belongings—a simple backpack, a plastic bag—probably all they had been allowed to hold on to. We overhear snippets of interviews, “. . .stopped at a red traffic light. . .left my three children. . .had been there for eleven years. . .this is my second time trying to go. . .I’m twenty-one. . . .” The air inside the building feels stale and heavy, the mood quiet and hopeless. Most migrants return with little or no money to face even fewer employment prospects.

Despite the numerous reports I’ve read on the record high deportation rates characteristic of the current U.S. administration’s immigration policy, these visits in Honduras made the situation much clearer for me. Many of the migrants, increasingly from Central America, are returning to communities and cities often consumed with organized crime, gang violence and some of the world’s highest homicide rates.[3] While migrants still leave for economic reasons, such as better job opportunities in the U.S., they are also migrating to escape being killed, or with the simple hope of being reunited with their family members in the U.S. These new reasons factor into their decision to leave their country of origin and risk their lives on an extremely dangerous 1,800-mile trek through Mexico to find a better life in the U.S.

“I’d rather die trying than be killed in my home,” migrants often say.

At the end of the week, pieces of the migrants’ stories overheard in the San Pedro Sula Center mix in my mind with Sister Valdete’s determination to protect their rights and welcome them “home” when no one else does. While the important work of Sister Valdete and other unsung heroes sprinkled across the region remains indispensable, the U.S., Mexico, and all the countries of Central America have their work cut out for them in addressing the protection of migrant rights as part of the realities of long-term regional migration.

Daniella Burgi-Palomino is a master’s candidate at The Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy focusing on the intersection of human security and public policy. She took this trip in the post she held before coming to Fletcher.

Endnotes

[1] This was in early 2012. According to some reports, in 2013 a total of 40,000 migrants were estimated to have been returned as deportees to Honduras from the U.S.

[2] On a subsequent trip in 2013 I found that these planes were no longer allowed to land at the Tegucigalpa airport, and were now confined solely to the San Pedro Sula airport.

[3] Sibylla Brodzinsky, “Inside San Pedro Sula, The most violent city in the world,” The Guardian, May 15, 2013.

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Philip Martin presents: Human Trafficking in New England

For those of you who weren’t able to attend in person, the video of our Human Trafficking in New England event, presented by WGBH reporter and Fletcher alumnus Philip Martin, can be found below. Mr. Martin continues to report on human trafficking in the New England area for WGBH. His latest stories on the subject can be found here.

Much thanks to our fellow event sponsor, the Fletcher School’s chapter of the Ralph Bunche Society.

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Staff Links: James Palmer’s “Kept Women”

From Aeon Magazine’s James Palmer: an article on the phenomenon of the ernai, or “second woman”, in China, where rural and urban women alike become the mistresses of politically powerful Chinese men.  Seeing this fast-moving socioeconomic scene through the eyes of its female participants, Palmer paints a richly layered picture of Chinese women struggling to achieve the possibility of a secure future in a complex and competitive world.

For more on:
Sex, power, and security in China:
- Red Lights: The Lives of Sex Workers in Postsocialist China, by Tiantian Zheng (2009).

Women and the rural-urban migration in China:
- Factory Girls: From Village to City in a Changing China, by Leslie T. Chang (2009).

The internal dynamics of the Chinese Communist Party:
- The Party: The Secret World of China’s Communist Rulers, by Richard McGregor (2012).

Migration, sex, and labor in the context of globalization: 
Cosmopolitan Sex Workers: Women and Migration in a Global City, by Christine B.N. Chin (2013).

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Interview with Dr. Maung Zarni

Dr. Maung Zarni is an exile, commentator, critic and expert on the political affairs of Myanmar. His research interests include the political economy of violence, international development and conflict, as well as democratic transitions in Asia. He is Visiting Fellow (2011-2013) at the Civil Society and Human Security Research Unit, London School of Economics and Political Science, and Visiting Senior Research Fellow at the University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur.

 Zarni spoke with PRAXIS on February 28, 2012 while he was attending a World Peace Foundation seminar on advocacy and human rights.

PRAXIS: What do you think are the greatest prospects and greatest challenges facing Myanmar – both socially and economically – as it emerges from the last six decades of direct military rule and global isolationism?

Zarni: On the future of Burma: No one is in a position to figure it out exactly. It’s not crystal ball gazing either. I’m a structuralist and look at interests as structures, such as commercial, strategic, etc. I don’t see a bright future for the country, but that doesn’t mean that I’m completely hopeless or desperate in the situation. The buzz word being used is “opening up” and the way “the new Myanmar/Burma” is framed in the Western discourse and the media, especially in government policy and institutions such as the World Bank, IMF, or the UN, no one has a better framing of Burma than Barack Obama, who framed Burma as his foreign policy success story in the [2013] State of the Union Address. That is outrageous. That’s the hype. Continue reading

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The 2013 Edition of PRAXIS is here!

PraxisCover_HiRes

We are proud to announce the on-line publication of the journal’s twenty-eighth edition, “Inclusive Justice: Human Security as an Integral Element of Global Justice.”

PRAXIS: The Fletcher Journal of Human Security views the complexities of pressing global issues through a multidisciplinary lens. We believe that the security of individuals is best understood by drawing on the intersecting fields of human rights, conflict resolution, humanitarian assistance, and international development. This year we have modernized the journal by expanding our online presence with the PRAXIS blog, as well as developing a new logo and cover design. Along with these exciting new developments, PRAXIS remains fully dedicated to its primary mission as an academic journal, and we are pleased to present the twenty-­eighth edition of scholarly articles. This year’s articles focus on different facets of inclusive global justice, with authors investigating  human-centric mechanisms of transitional justice, peace processes, and international development.

In our first article, Adan E. Suazo argues for the importance of long-term political inclusion of former combatants to prevent the reoccurrence of conflict. Through three  case studies, he investigates different political inclusion mechanisms contained in peace treaties and the ability of former warring parties to obtain electoral success in post-conflict. He concludes by defining the types of inclusive strategies that may be the most  conducive to peace by allowing parties a true opportunity to gain political power.

Continue reading

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