Possible course projects: Medically tailored meals
Right now, around week 3 of the semester, students start formulating their project topics. Here’s the initial project motivation from hospital dietician Andrea Cooper, who wrote:
I work with elderly people at risk of malnutrition. Medically tailored meals could be a lifesaver.
Older adults living in the community will make up to 24% of the U.S. population by 2030. They prefer to age in place and be self-sufficient, but are at higher risk of malnutrition than older adults living in specialized facilities. Malnutrition complicates their health care, requiring more resources upon hospitalization.
The food-as-medicine movement aims to provide medically tailored meals (MTM) for those populations most at risk. Current legislation proposes Centers for Medicare and Medicaid (CMS) pilots to evaluate the effectiveness of home-delivered medically tailored meals to Medicare participants. This reinforces the NIH 2020–2030 Strategic Plan for Nutrition Research strategic goal #4- improving the use of food as medicine.
Optimization of the delivery of MTM involves increased research proving the intervention is working and increased funding of initiatives. California is the first state to begin pilot testing the MTM model. There are also smaller projects currently collecting data on MTM and relationships with specific disease states. Published literature suggests the use of MTM is associated with improved patient outcomes and reduced healthcare costs.
Constraints could run the gamut from scalability of the successful programs, coordination between regions and states, continued bipartisan support and again funding. There are possible of roll-over effects associated with providing meals to households at risk for food insecurity thus modifying this equilibrium even further. Is it possible that we have nothing to lose by providing nourishing food to those least able to provide it for themselves?
Possible course projects: Agricultural subsidies in the U.S.
At this point in the semester, students start formulating their project topics. Here’s an initial description of a potential topic from MNSP student Jieun Wrigley:
The US farm bill is the primary agricultural and food policy tool of the federal government. In 2020 alone, US farmers are likely to receive as much as $23.5Bn of subsidies to a broad sweep of agriculture related agencies. Agriculture subsidies include crop insurance premiums, agricultural risk coverage, marketing loans, export promotions, disaster aid, direct payments and much more. US agriculture subsidies may optimize benefits for individual US farmers but these subsidies have far-reaching negative impacts beyond US farm borders.
As we learned in this week’s lecture, policies subsidizing production shift the supply curve to the right without directly impacting domestic demand. Subsidies often encourage over production and increase export quantities. From a snapshot view of this economic model, this would seem a favorable solution for individual US farmers and US society at large; US consumer surplus isn’t affected; US producer surplus expands; surplus is exported. It all sounds positive but what if the impact of these subsidies is actually negative for the broader societal equilibrium? For developing countries, the influx of cheaper products distorts their own economic models. What may appear to be a short-term benefit turns out to be, in the medium to long-term, an economic trap of poverty.
According to the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, as the US is such a large player in world agricultural trade due to the amount of its exports, its agricultural policies do significantly affect the world market for food…certain commodities in the US, that when exported, lower the international price of goods from which low-income country farmers derive their incomes. Countries like the US can generate funding for large subsidy programs from a large taxpayer base. But developing countries lack this ability. With subsidies serving as a safety net, US farmers can undercut pricing. This ultimately undermines domestic production in developing countries and they become dependent buyers of food from wealthier countries that have subsidized agricultural products.
In 2002 the UN Development Program estimated that farm subsidies cost poor countries about US$50 billion a year in lost agricultural exports. In 2006, WTO trade negotiations stalled because the US refused to cut subsidies to a level where other countries’ non-subsidized exports would have been competitive. It is no surprise agricultural subsidies often are stumbling blocks in trade negotiations. The economic models we consider assume a competitive market driven by comparative advantage. But this assumption seems to fail when one country holds most of the advantages.
In the 1970s, Haiti was self-sufficient in rice production. Today, Haiti imports over 80% of its rice from the US, primarily the state of Arkansas. Haiti’s drop in economic productivity has paralleled its increase in food dependency leaving the country vulnerable to many follow-on economic woes. Such high food insecurity is unsustainable leading to a rise in malnutrition as well as environmental degradation. Unfortunately, Haiti isn’t the only country affected by US farm subsidies. This economic scenario is visible across products (such as corn, sugar, cotton, tobacco) in many developing countries. While many international organizations aim to support food and nutrition policies in Haiti, until the linchpin issue of US agriculture subsidies is addressed, efforts are placatory.
One of the limitations with the basic supply-demand model is that it is a snapshot in time, often viewed from a single perspective. It is difficult to glean the heavy costs to Haitian farmers, the rise in malnutrition, the environmental degradation and the benefits to US farmers within the same model. Although these issues are fundamentally intertwined, we view the impacts as separate issues. But it begs the question, why does agriculture have an industry wide safety net when other industries run similar risks? I wonder if the average US federal taxpayer is aware of the safety net their dollars provide the agriculture industry? And can we continue to call these subsidies safety nets when they are economic traps for others?
Hello everyone! I researched the topic of colony collapse disorder on honey bee colonies in the United States for my midterm project. While this topic has been around for several years, the importation of foreign bees has begun more recently. This importation has altered the economic impact of declining populations of honey bees in America. You can watch my video presentation here:
I hope you enjoy learning about this topic!
Thinking like an economist… about milk
Last Friday I was watching CNN and the government shut down was a hot topic (and still is). What stood out the most were reports about how a prolonged government shutdown might affect grocery prices, particularly the price of milk. The news claimed that milk prices could double! I didn’t know if this was actually possible, a gallon of organic milk is about $4.50. Would people actually pay $9.00 for milk? It made me wonder how a rise in price might affect the choices consumers would make at the grocery store. Would people opt for milk alternatives like coconut, soy, or almond milk? Would people choose to consume more of other beverages instead? How would this affect the price of cereal?
Today my family in Puerto Rico told me that in the past few days the price of milk has risen to $8 a gallon. I wouldn’t consider milk to be a staple of the Puerto Rican diet, but a lot of popular baked goods are made with milk. So I’m curious about how a rise in milk prices will affect the price of other popular foods. But my question to the class is, how would a rise in milk prices affect your consumer choices?
Twitter (click photo for full profile)
- Just got big boost to #FoodPricesForNutrition, via @RockefellerFdn invite for an #RFBellagio Center Residency. I c… https://t.co/xRQU4SBitl about 4 days ago
- Friedman careers center postings
- Friedman alumni group on LinkedIn
- Nutrition-related jobs (ASN)
- Devex (US and international)
- Economics-related jobs (search “food”)
- Policy-related jobs (APPAM)
- Boston-area intl. dev. jobs & news (BNID)
- Food policy jobs in the US (Daybook)
- Intl. ag and nutrition jobs+news (Ag2Nut)
- Intl. development jobs (search “food”)
- Global health & poverty (80,000 hrs)
- Boston Network for Intl. Dev.
- Solutions Journalism – stories of success
- Politico – US food & ag policy
- Ag2nut – international nutrition
- Chicago Council – global food & ag
- Farm Policy News – from Univ. of Illinois
- The Counter – ‘Fact and friction in American food’
- Food dive – specialist journalism about the food industry
- Food Safety News – nasty stuff to avoid
- Dani Nierenberg’s Food Tank
- Jeremy Cherfas – food culture
- Gro Intel – deep dives into data
- FERN’s ag insider news
- Econofact – US economic policy
- Rudd Center – obesity policy
- David Allison – obesity research
- ANH Academy – mostly Africa & Asia
Data & resources
- My list of resources (experimental)
- WB DIME data analysis handbook
- JPAL how-to research resources
- USDA Econ. Res. Service (ERS) data
- USDA Food & Nutr. program data
- NCCOR – all US food-health data
- World Bank data
- FAO Statistics (FAOSTAT)
- UNICEF statistics
- WHO – child heights and weights
- WHO – global obesity and BMI
- UN system data
- HDX – humanitarian crises
- The dataverse
- IHSN – household surveys
- IPUMS – accessible data (incl. IDHS)
- Euromonitor – branded foods (library subscription)
- Gro Intelligence data
- UNCTAD – international trade
- Parke Wilde – food policy
- Jess Fanzo – food systems
- Marc Bellemare – ag & food econ
- Chris Blattman – dev econ
- Jayson Lusk – ag & food econ
- Diane Coyle – economics books
- Marion Nestle – food politics
- Tamar Haspel – food & ag
- World Bank – impact evaluation
- BITSS – research methods
- Econofact – US econ policy
- Susan Dynarski – education policy
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