Levitt, Citizen’s Guide to Redistricting

Markov chains

Peres et al, Markov chains and mixing times

Aldous and Fill, Reversible Markov Chains and Random Walks on Graphs (this is a not-quite-final version. see table on p169, where τ_1 is the mixing time)

Compactness taxonomy (comes with no warranty)

Niemi et al, “Measuring Compactness…”

A guide to the role of compactness in the 1990s Supreme Court cases (the “Shaw line”)

Pildes and Niemi, “Bizarre Districts”

Communities of interest

Gardner, “Representation without Party” (see esp. footnotes on p58 of PDF for case law)

Gardner, “…Political Community”

Spatiality/clustering and representation

Cottrell, “A Geographic Explanation for Partisan Representation”

Chen and Cottrell, “Evaluating partisan gains from Congressional gerrymandering…”

Chen and Rodden, “Unintentional gerrymandering….”

Reports and related papers

Some sampling papers and reports to see how they handle penalties/objective functions

Mattingly et al, Wisconsin

Mattingly et al, North Carolina

Duchin, Pennsylvania

Cho and Liu, PEAR survey

Chen, North Carolina

Chen, Florida

Chen, Pennsylvania

MGGG’s Santa Clara report, with some analysis of minority population clustering

White paper

Links to interactive things

Experiment with all the ways to district a 2×3 grid: spreadsheet

Doug Spencer’s EI app (Version 1.5)

Some interesting shapefiles


(search “shapefile” in page to find plans)

  • “Legislative Respondents” = Turzai-Scarnati, the 2018 Republican Leg plan
  • “State Democratic Caucus” = 2018 Democratic Leg plan
  • “Governor Wolf Shape Files” = 2018 Governor’s plan
  • “Remedial Plan” = special master Persily’s independent plan, which was actually enacted

North Carolina