Cellophane bees (Colletes inaequalis) herald spring in the eastern US. Bees emerge on the first warm day, when snow is still on the ground. They get right to work searching for flowers to feed on after a long winter. And, as spring comes earlier and earlier, bees are coming out earlier. We, pollinator scientists at Tufts University, want to learn more about how the annual schedules of bees are affected by climate change. And we need your help!
How do I know I’ve found a cellophane bee? Cellophane bees live east of The Rockies and from North Carolina to Ontario. They are slender and macaroni-sized, ~0.75x the size of a honey bee. They are fuzzy with bold white stripes over a black abdomen and they have “cute” heart-shaped faces. Unlike similar sized mining bees (Andrena spp.), females do not have shallow, vertical grooves on their face.
do their nests look like? Cellophane bee nests look like tiny
volcanoes of sand (think ant hill but with an entrance about the width of a
pencil). They nest in aggregations, meaning one nest is surrounded by many
others of similar size and shape. Aggregations often form in disturbed areas or
sparsely vegetated ground on sunny slopes. Cemeteries, walking paths, and river
banks are all good places to look!
What flowers do cellophane bees like? Shrubby willows (Salix), red maples (Acer rubrum), redbud (Cercis canadensis), plum (Prunus), and apple (Malus).
I have to worry about being stung? Don’t worry, cellophane bees are docile!
Each female takes care of her own nest, which takes a lot of time and energy. She
wouldn’t risk getting involved with a giant human.
Pollinators face a relentless barrage of threats from humans. The main factors driving pollinators declines include habitat loss, pesticides, climate change, light pollution, and the spread of exotic species and disease. Recently, scientists framed pollinator declines as “death by a thousand cuts,” underscoring that no single factor is solely responsible. Rather, the combination of multiple factors working in tandem is the greatest threat.
With this in mind, 2021 is a perfect year to resolve to make a small change in your lifestyle to support pollinators. Inspired by a recent list of actions to conserve insects, TPI proposes five actions you can take in 2021 to make a difference in the lives of urban pollinators:
1. Grow native plants. Native plants are beautiful and adapted to the local environment, meaning they require less water and fewer chemical inputs compared to ornamental plants. Even more, they offer food (pollen, nectar, leaves), nesting sites, and shelter for pollinators. Native plants also provide cultural benefits in the form of reconnecting community members to their local environments. Interested in growing natives? Check out our native planting guides and stay tuned for details regarding TPI’s native plant sale during 2021 national pollinator week.
2. Reduce your pesticide use. Pesticides are nasty chemicals that are widely used to suppress pest insects and weeds, but also cause non-target effects in pollinators. In spite of successful efforts in Europe to increase regulation on these pesticides, as well as ongoing campaigns here in the U.S., many harmful chemicals remain available to consumers worldwide. On average, lawns receive ten times more pesticides than do conventionally grown crops. Use pesticides judiciously and in a targeted way; avoid broad applications and claims by companies to “eradicate mosquitos.” Remember: any product that kills a mosquito also kills a bee.
3. Turn off your lights at night. Artificial light at night (ALAN) is one of most recognizable signatures of humanity from space. Yet, it also spells disaster for nocturnal pollinating insects like moths and beetles. Insects attracted to lights are easily picked off by predators and are worse at finding mates. As a result, insect populations suffer in areas with high ALAN such as cities. To curb declines of nocturnal pollinating insects, install motion-activated lights, replace bright blue-white lights with softer red-orange ones, or plant a moon garden containing night-blooming plants. Let’s keep our skies dark.
4. Shop local and support farmer’s markets. Many growers and vendors in Somerville and Medford near Tufts University (like the Somerville Winter Market and Neighborhood Produce) are committed to supporting pollinators by selling pesticide-free, locally-made products. Shop there as often as possible in order to avoid less insect-friendly alternatives at larger chain stores.
5. Educate others and share this post. Urban pollinator conservation depends on the active participation of the community. Become an advocate for pollinator conservation by writing to your politicians, installing a yard sign, or by simply talking about it—to your kids, your friends, your neighbors, your hairdressers, your bakers, your baristas. Teach them that bees come in all shapes and sizes or challenge them to notice their first monarch butterfly of the year. Simple awareness of pollinators—getting people to notice their environment—is the goal.
Have you made any pollinator resolutions for 2021? Let us
know! We’d love to hear from you.
Over the past few months, TPI members have hard at work sifting through and analyzing the data we collected in summer 2020. Each week, three times per week, we identified the flowering plants in our gardens and counted flower-visiting insects. We’ve summarized the diversity of plants and insects found in our gardens on two new webpages: Plant Diversity and Pollinator Diversity. In short…
Our gardens contain more than 20 species each of native wildflowers. At least one species was blooming in our gardens each week between May and October. Some of the most popular native wildflowers of pollinators and humans alike are wild bergamot (Monarda fistulosa), culver’s root (Veronicastrum virginicum), blazing star (Liatris scariosa), new york ironweed (Vernonia noveboracensis), and new england aster (Symphyotrichum novae-angliae). Do you have any of these plants in your garden?
Our gardens attracted over 115 species of insect pollinators. Some of those insects found food in our gardens: six different bumble bee species (Bombus spp.) collected pollen from sunflowers, sand wasps (Bembix americana) hunted flies, and gray hairstreak caterpillars (Strymon melinus) browsed on mountain mint. Other insects made their home in our gardens: furrow bees (Halictus sp.) and leaf-cutter bees (Megachile sp.) nested in the bare soils. Our gardens are just two years old and already they are supporting more insects than we could have imagined! We can’t wait to see what we find during our surveys in 2021.