Literature Cited

  1. Alcohol Facts and Statistics | National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA).
  2. Almendrala, A. (2014). The State Where The Most Americans Drink Themselves To Death. Retrieved November 03, 2016, from
  3. Cederbaum, A. I. (2012, November). Alcohol Metabolism. Clinical Liver Disease,4(16), 667-685. Retrieved from
  4. PDB-101: Alcohol Dehydrogenase.
  5. Zakhari, S. (2006). Overview: How is Alcohol Metabolized by the Body? Retrieved from
  6. Cook, P. F., & Cleland, W. W. (1981). PH Variation of Isotope Effects in Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions. 2. Isotope-Dependent Step Not pH Dependent. Kinetic Mechanism of Alcohol Dehydrogenase. Biochemistry (ACS), 1812-1815. Retrieved from
  7. Nagy, L. E. (2004). Molecular Aspects of Alcohol Metabolism: Transcription Factors Involved in Early Ethanol-Induced Liver Injury. Annu. Rev. Nutr. Annual Review of Nutrition, 24(1), 55-78. doi:10.1146/annurev.nutr.24.012003.132258
  8. Wang, Y., Yang, C., Wang, H., Han, K., & Shaik, S. (2007). A New Mechanism for Ethanol Oxidation Mediated by Cytochrome P450 2E1: Bulk Polarity of the Active Site Makes a Difference. ChemBioChem, 277-281. doi:10.1002/cbic.200600510
  9. Bell-Parikh, C., & Guengerich, P. (1999, August). Kinetics of Cytochrome P450 2E1-Catalyzed Oxidation of Ethanol to Acetic Acid via Acetaldehyde. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 274(34), 23833-23840.
  10. Goyal, M. M., & Basak, A. (2012, November). Hydroxyl Radical Generation Theory: A Possible Explanation of Unexplained Actions of Mammalian Catalase. International Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3(3), 282-289. doi:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2012.10.050
  11. Koppaka, V., Thompson, D., Chen, Y., Ellermann, M., Nicolaou, K., Juvonen, R., . . . Vasiliou, V. (2012). Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Inhibitors: A Comprehensive Review of the Pharmacology, Mechanism of Action, Substrate Specificity, and Clinical Application. Pharmacological Reviews, 64, 520-539.
  12. Acetaminophen Overdose and Liver Injury — Background and Options forReducing Injury. (2009, May). Retrieved from
  13. Fontana, R. J. (2008). Acute Liver Failure including Acetaminophen Overdose. Retrieved from
  14. Zafar, Amina. (2016). Why Acetaminophen is the ‘Most Common Cause of Liver Injury’ in Canada. Retrieved from
  15. Mazaleuskaya Liudmila L, Sangkuhl Katrin, Thorn Caroline F, FitzGerald Garret A Altman Russ B, Klein Teri E . “Acetaminophen Pathway (Therapeutic Doses), Pharmacokinetics” Pharmacogenetics and genomics (2015). Retrieved from
  16. Saito, C., Zwingmann, C., & Jaeschke, H. (2010). Novel Mechanism of ProtectionAgainst Acetaminophen Hepatotoxicity in Mice by Glutathione and Acetylcysteine. Retrieved from
  17. Alcohol’s Effects on the Body. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA).
  18. Robert, Ben J., Byoung-Joon Son, Yunjo Soh, and Sang S. Park. (1995). Ethanol Induces CYP2E1 by Protein Stabilization. The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Retrieved from
  19. Baille, T., Dhalin, D., Nelson, S., & Streeter, A. (1984). The Covalent Binding of Acetaminophen to Protein. Evidence for Cysteine Residues as Major Sites of Arylation In VitroElsevier Scientific Publishers Ireland Ltd. Retrieved from
  20. Brodie, B., Davis, D., Gillette, G., Jollow, D., & Mitchell, J. (1973). Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatic Necrosis. II. Role Of Covalent Binding In VivoThe Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Retrieved from
  21. Burcham, P., & Harman, A. (1991). Acetaminophen Toxicity Results in Site-specific Mitochondrial Damage in Isolated Mouse Hepatocytes. Retrieved from
  22. Mourad, N., & Woronick, C. L. (1967). Crystallization of human liver alcohol dehydrogenase. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 121(2), 431-439. doi:10.1016/0003-9861(67)90097-5



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