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Today I’d like to share the second installment of Faculty Facts. As I put together these summaries of research and professional activities, I’ll continue to try to show the breadth of professors’ interests by profiling representatives of various fields in each post. In a professional school with a multidisciplinary curriculum, the range of activities is especially broad. In case you missed it, the first Faculty Facts post appeared last week.
Tom Dannenbaum, Assistant Professor of International Law
I have recently completed a book on the criminalization of aggression, which will come out in the next few months. The book argues that the revival of the crime has more significant implications for soldiers on either side of such wars than has thus far been appreciated. It builds on a recent article, Why Have We Criminalized Aggressive War?, which provides an account of the criminal wrongfulness of aggression, and which was awarded the Lieber Prize by the American Society of International Law. Moving forward, I am working on several projects, including a piece on the legitimacy of the International Criminal Court, a piece on the law and ethics of medical care in armed conflict, and a theory of war crimes.
Monica Duffy Toft, Professor of International Politics
I continue to research the role of religion in global politics and the onset of large-scale violence. I am finishing a book on demography and national security and beginning a major project on U.S. military interventions.
Ayesha Jalal, Mary Richardson Professor of History at Tufts University
I am working on a new project tentatively entitled “Islamic Universalism, Liberalism and the Age of Empire” that probes Muslim responses to liberal values and thought projected by Western empires, most notably the British in India as well as in West and South East Asia. This builds on my most recent research and writing examining the inter-connectivities, and especially the intellectual, cultural and political exchanges, between the Indus-Gangetic plain and the wide world of Islam on the Indian Ocean Rim, which is being brought out as a jointly edited volume called Islam is the Ocean.
My purpose in conducting this inquiry is to assess the validity of the claim — initially made by Orientalist scholars, often linked with colonial administrations in different parts of Asia but which since has been accepted as something of an academic “orthodoxy” — that Muslims cannot be liberal in the true sense of the word because of the limitations imposed on their thinking by the imperatives of their faith. In addition to subjecting the concept of liberalism to rigorous historical and intellectual scrutiny with a view to questioning its exclusively Western trajectory, I am in the process of tracing debates during the late 19th and early 20th centuries in which Muslims, operating at a transnational level, took the initiative of challenging Western writers and policymakers who portrayed the Faithful as averse to reform and progress. In subsequent phases of the research, I will be looking at the impact of the post-WWII international system based on modern nation-states in molding conceptions of “liberal” thinking in the Muslim world during the Cold War and the post-Cold War periods. In sum, this project addresses many of the key issues discussed in the contemporary debate on Muslims and liberalism by offering an analytically focused, sharply critical and historically grounded perspective.
John Shattuck, Professor of Practice in Diplomacy
I am on leave from Fletcher this semester and I’m serving as a Visiting Scholar at the Institute of International Studies, University of California, Berkeley, where I am engaged in a comparative research and writing project on illiberal governance and democratic resilience in the U.S. and Europe. My research on democratic resilience in the U.S. will be issued this spring as a report by the Carr Center for Human Rights Policy, where I am a Senior Fellow. I delivered the keynote address, “The Crisis of Democracy in the U.S. and Europe,” at the Genron Institute international conference on challenges to democracy in Tokyo in November; and will be a keynote speaker this spring at conferences at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Georgetown University, Harvard Law School, and Brandeis University. I chair the international advisory board of the Center on Ethics, Justice and Public Life at Brandeis University.
I’ve recently published two research papers, and a third is forthcoming.
“How Resilient is Liberal Democracy in the US?,” published by the Carr Center for Human Rights Policy, Harvard Kennedy School, February 15, 2018
“Democracy and Illiberal Governance,” The American Prospect, August 29, 2017
“Will Democracy in America Survive Donald Trump?,” forthcoming from The American Prospect, March/April 2018
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Members of Fletcher’s faculty are first-and-foremost educators. They teach, advise students on Capstone Projects and PhD dissertations, provide governance for the School, organize conferences, and do all the other activities that are associated with being a professor. But it’s also typical for professors to conduct research, write, publish, and maintain associations with professional groups. While they might teach the same classes for several years in a row, their research and professional activities can change yearly. As I noted yesterday, I asked the faculty to provide a brief summary of what they are working on and I’ll be sharing their summaries today and weekly until I have published them all. I’ll also include videos, such as interviews with Dean Stavridis, or other materials you may want to check out, after reading the summaries.
Karen Jacobsen, Henry J. Leir Professor in Global Migration
My current main research is the Refugees in Towns project, which supports towns and urban neighborhoods in becoming immigrant- and refugee-friendly spaces that take full advantage of the benefits brought by refugees, while finding ways to manage the inevitable and long-term challenges of immigrant integration.
Chris Miller, Assistant Professor of International History
My current research examines the past and future of Russian power projection in Asia. After the annexation of Crimea in 2014, Russia began what many in Moscow describe as a “turn to the east” — an effort to deepen relations with China and expand Russia’s role in Asia. Yet this is not the first time Russia has pivoted toward Asia. The book I am writing studies the history of Russia’s Asian pivots from the early 1800s, when Russia first established a major foothold on the Pacific Ocean, through the present, to understand the roots of the Kremlin’s current effort to bolster its role in Asia.
Larry Krohn, Adjunct Professor of International Economics
I’m finishing a book, under contract with University of Toronto Press, on the economics of Latin America (an 18-nation universe). It deals with policy issues experienced over roughly the last thirty years (from the famous Washington Consensus). This was my area of specialization when I worked as an economist in financial services (1983-2008) and was what first brought me to Fletcher in 2005. The work is organized around issues, macro and structural, using country experiences as case studies. Not surprisingly, Brazil, Mexico and Argentina are cited most often. Many of the issues I deal with are not familiar to students exposed only to the usual micro-cum-macro principles courses taken in nations deemed of high income, and thus with an orientation to the problems of that economic stratum — decidedly not that of Latin America in the period under study. So I ensure that the basic theoretical notions and vocabulary of each subject area are conveyed to the reader before tackling the strictly Latin manifestations of the problem.
Ian Johnstone, Professor of International Law
I am currently engaged in three strands of research. The first is the most theoretical. It extends the work I have done on legal interpretive communities by situating it in the growing body of literature in international relations on “communities of practice.” A question I am exploring is whether a global interpretive community ever exists in a given issue area (for example on the use of force in international law), or whether it makes more sense to speak of multiple interpretive communities from different parts of the world that may or may not intersect.
The second strand of research is on peacekeeping and international law. I am editing a volume that pulls together the seminal writings on the topic, with an introductory essay that will serve as both a literature review and analysis of the current state of the law.
The third strand, which is more policy-oriented, considers various ways in which global health and global security intersect. Within that framework, I am currently engaged in research on the practice of inter-governmental and non-governmental organizations that seeks to address the stigmatization of forcibly displaced persons as carriers of infectious disease.
On a separate track, the new Center for International Law and Governance (which I co-direct with Professor Joel Trachtman) is holding an interdisciplinary conference on cyber-security in September 2018. A series of panels will consider whether international legal mechanisms can and should be developed to address politically-motivated cyber attacks on civilian institutions and infrastructure. Our plan is to engage policy-makers on the topic with the goal of having a practical impact, as well to produce an edited volume that will contribute to the scholarly literature.
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