Currently viewing the tag: "LLM"
Although only three of this year’s Student Stories writers are second-year students, a total of four will graduate on Sunday. Prianka has completed the requirements for the one-year LLM program and will join Adi, Mariya, and Pulkit at Commencement. Here is Prianka’s Annotated Curriculum for her year at Fletcher.
Senior Associate, Lakshmikumaran & Sridharan Attorneys, New Delhi, India
Consultant, Ernst & Young LLP, New Delhi, India
Enforceability of Transparency Requriements Relating to Trade Remedy Measures
LLM students are required to complete five credits within the International Law and Organization (ILO) division, one from Diplomacy, History and Politics (DHP), and one from Economics and International Business (EIB). The course requirements are definitely a lot more straightforward than they are for the MALD or MIB program, but it is a rigorous nine months completing eight classes and a capstone.
A challenge in selecting your courses as an LLM student is being fairly certain in the first semester of the courses that you will take in the next semester, too. Particularly for EIB and ILO, a number of the courses require an introductory course as a prerequisite, meaning that you either take the introductory course in the fall semester with the aim of taking the higher-level course in the spring semester, or you won’t be able to take the higher-level course at all. With that in mind, I audited an introductory course in economics to be able to take a higher-level course in the spring semester. Auditing the class also helped me understand whether I would be able to handle the higher-level course.
International law and international trade were two areas of law that I was keen on studying coming into Fletcher. The course on global governance was a good mix of international relations and law, which was important for me as I had not taken an international relations course during my undergraduate degree. Looking back, the first semester was definitely a good initiation to being back in school. I was also involved with The Fletcher Forum of World Affairs as their Legal Staff Editor.
International Treaty Behavior: A Perspective on Globalization
International Investment Law
International Trade and Investment
International Intellectual Property (January term at Harvard Law School)
The second semester was definitely a lot more challenging than my first. Added to the academic rigor, the fact that the temperature dipped to -18 degrees Celsius (converting it to Fahrenheit makes it seem warmer in my head) made it hard to get out of bed on most mornings!
My second semester started a bit early as I took a January term course on intellectual property at the Harvard Law School. Two main reasons for taking the course were, first, to reduce my course load during the rest of semester, as the January term starts and ends before the spring semester begins. Second, the professor who taught the course at Harvard was a well-renowned expert in the field.
International Trade and Investment was my first economics class in over six years, but I’m happy to report that I have officially gotten over my phobia of economics! Just as my law classes at Fletcher have brought in aspects from other fields, International Trade and Investment was a course on economics against the backdrop of law and policy.
An interesting aspect of the other two law courses that I took in the second semester, was that simulations were part of the curriculum. In the course on International Investment Law, the class was divided into teams to negotiate an investment treaty. Similarly, in the course on International Treaty Behavior, we had a simulation in which students were given roles as various countries and organizations with the aim of negotiating a treaty. This definitely brought an interesting perspective to both classes.
In addition to continuing my role as an editor at The Fletcher Forum of World Affairs, I was the team leader for a project with the Harvard Law and International Development Society. With completing the capstone and coming to terms with the fact that I would soon be done with grad school, it was definitely a jam-packed semester.
I continue to welcome blog topic suggestions via the two-question survey, and even as I do, I’m working on writing posts in response. Recently a reader asked about post-Fletcher jobs. The question was specifically about the LLM program, but I want to point out a few resources that would be useful for anyone.
First, there are reports on both full-time employment and summer internships on the website of the Office of Career Services (OCS). When you’re on the employment report pages, click on the sectors that interest you for specific employer information. The online reports compile data from 2011-2016. More recent data from the class of 2017 will, I’m sure, be available soon.
The list of hiring organizations for LLM graduates overlaps significantly with those for the MALD or other programs, except for the many law firms, which are definitely over-represented relative to MALD/MIB/MA employers. I heard today that there are several additional LLM employers that will be added to the online list: United Nations Global Compact; United Nations (Associate Political Affairs Officer on Human Rights); HSBC (Financial Crime Risk); U.S. Navy Judge Advocate General Corps; Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Korea; and Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan.
I’d also like to remind you of the narrative job reports provided by alumni in the blog. Check out the updates by alumni five years post-Fletcher and one year after graduation. Several reports from the classes of 2013 and 2017 are sitting in my inbox, just waiting for me to have a chance to publish them, which I’ll try to do very soon.
And, last, a brief summary of how OCS works with students. During students’ first semester, they participate in the OCS Professional Development Program which sets them up well for the internship search or (in the case of one-year programs) job search that will start soon after PDP concludes. The role of OCS is as a partner for students in their career exploration and job search. That is, Fletcher doesn’t place students in internships or jobs, but working with OCS helps students identify opportunities. Ideally, students keep their professional objectives in mind as they plan out each semester and academic year. Classes that link to several career directions are suggested here. I don’t write nearly enough about OCS in the blog, but there’s still a handful of posts that cover key topics. Scroll back far enough and you’ll find four posts from the sector coaches at OCS in 2010 that are still largely relevant.
Continuing the student bloggers’ fall-semester recaps, Prianka reports on her first semester and some of the special activities open to students in the LLM program.
One semester down and just one more to go. Saying that time flies would be an understatement. The last semester was definitely challenging, but in all honesty, had it been anything short of challenging, I would have questioned whether I was doing something wrong! Being the first Admissions blogger from the LLM program, I thought I would talk about my experiences thus far at Fletcher.
Fletcher’s LLM program is not a traditional LLM program. The most obvious difference is that Fletcher is an international affairs school and, by virtue of the same, the courses on offer are not restricted to legal subjects but are also in economics, international business, diplomacy, history and politics. How does one pick just eight courses? And if that weren’t enough, Fletcher students also have the option of taking courses at Harvard University. This has its positives and negatives — definitely more to choose from, but it often makes me feel like a kid in a candy store on a budget! Despite being happy with my four carefully selected different types of candy, I still wonder whether I would have been happier with one of the other candies, particularly one of them that seems to be selling out fast.
Looking back at some of the main reasons I decided to study at Fletcher — the number of students enrolled in the program, the interdisciplinary nature of the course, the presence of faculty in the area of law that I was interested in — I consider that I was right in my reasoning. These are also some of the factors that differentiate the LLM program at Fletcher from the LLM program from a law school.
The education that one gains from a graduate school experience is not restricted to the courses on offer but also from conferences and guest lectures. Being part of an international affairs school, we’ve had a number of prominent personalities deliver lectures, including the current Croatian President, President Kolinda Grabar-Kitarović and others described in previous blog posts. The LLM program also organizes High Table lunches based on, to a certain extent, the particular interests of the current student cohort. Last semester we had the opportunity to hear from Mr. Alberto Mora and Dr. Lynn Kuok, F04, at High Table lunches. While Mr. Mora spoke about the legality of enhanced interrogation techniques, with Dr. Kuok we discussed competing national, legal, and political interests in the South China Sea. The High Table lunches are quite exclusive and intimate, with only the LLM students and the law faculty in attendance.
Another interesting event that the LLM program participated in was an International Law Weekend in New York. Not only was this an opportunity for some of us to visit New York for the first time, but we also attended discussions over the course of two days on the theme of “International Law in Challenging Times.” With each of us having interests in varied fields of law, the event had a little something for all.
Last but not least, we also have dinners hosted every now and then that give us the opportunity to get to know each other, and to interact with the law faculty in a more informal setting. In the first few weeks after we began our Fletcher journey, Professor Antonia Chayes hosted a dinner for the LLM batch to meet each other as well as the law faculty. Towards the end of the semester, Professor Burgess and his wife hosted a holiday party at their home. The dinner was a nice end to the semester, but left me personally grappling with the fact that I was half way through my LLM journey. I remember back in Orientation week keeping an eye out for students with red LLM folders amongst the sea of 200 students carrying black MALD folders; seeing all the red folders in one place was comforting, particularly in the first few days when everything seemed unfamiliar!
This brings me to my bucket list, described in my first post. Nearly four months gone, a couple of check marks in and a couple of new additions to the list. I did go for my first Black Friday sale but, most disappointingly, didn’t stand in a queue to get in or even wait in a line to check out, but did leave with more bags than I anticipated! I also did buy my first lottery ticket but, sadly, lady luck wasn’t on my side that day. Building a snowperson still remains on the list and, by my next post, I hope that I check it off. A couple of new additions to my bucket list are to go for an ice hockey game and, if I can muster up the courage, to go ice skating. After a couple of falls just walking in the snow, I’m very wary of going on the ice!
Hello! Namaste! Sawadika! Salaam alaikum! Bonjour! Konnichiwa! Ni Hao! Hola! Guten tag! Ola! Merhaba! Shalom!
A peek into the Fletcher world – a melting pot of cultures, languages, and much more! From me personally: Namaskara, vanakkam, or namaste!
To introduce myself, I am from India and I’m enrolled in the Master’s in Law program at Fletcher. A question that I have found difficult to answer since coming to Fletcher is exactly where in India I am from. I was brought up in Bangalore, spent five years in law school in Jodhpur, and after that a little more than four years working in Delhi. While Bangalore is always home, Delhi is my home away from home.
One of the goals that I set for myself at Fletcher was to challenge myself and to sign up for new experiences. Contributing to the Admissions Blog would be one of the new experiences that I am quite excited about.
Before Fletcher, I worked in the field of international trade at Ernst & Young and thereafter a law firm, Lakshmikumaran & Sridharan. As a lawyer working in the international trade team in both organizations, I worked primarily on trade remedy investigations. I was advising companies across the globe and the government of India on trade remedy matters. International trade was an area that interested me in law school and I gradually developed an affinity for it during my professional career. A couple of years into my work, I realized that getting a holistic understanding of this area of law was important for me, in order to fill the gaps in the experience that I had gained working in the field.
That need led me to apply to the LLM program at Fletcher. The run-up to deciding whether or not I was ready to take the plunge of going back to school was quite daunting. Was I ready to take a break for a year professionally, not have a paycheck come in at the end of the month, and make my first journey towards the west? Two months into my Fletcher journey and I’ve had no reasons to doubt my decision.
The courses have definitely been challenging on many levels and I realize that they have exposed me to areas and aspects that I never considered would be part of my journey. An interesting facet of the Fletcher program is that, though I’m in the LLM program, all my classes are with students from the other programs as well. So even when I’m in a law course, my peers are not necessarily lawyers, but rather, come from diverse backgrounds. Naturally, therefore, discussions haven’t focused only on the letter of the law, but also the other aspects that influence the law, such as politics, economics, and social context. That being said, every now and then I do find myself pining to argue about the difference between a “may” and “shall” or between a “probable,” “possible,” or “plausible” in a legal provision!
Over the next few blog entries, I hope to be able to give someone looking to understand Fletcher a bird’s eye view into the LLM program through my journey. However, I believe that a disclaimer would be important — as with any journey, there are many paths to the destination, and my path is just one of the routes!
If the last two months were anything to go by, I’m certain that the rest of the year at Fletcher is going to be intellectually stimulating. As a person who has a fondness for lists, I hope to cross off all my academic goals by the end of this journey. On a more personal note, I have a bucket list of sorts that I consider as important. It varies from buying a lottery ticket that the Boston billboards depict as having a high probability of success (and something that’s banned in most Indian states); to building a snowman, since this is going to be the first time that I’ll be in sub-freezing temperatures; to going to a baseball game and knowing more than “1, 2, 3 strikes, you’re out.” I have been told it’s a peculiar list, but for me it seems quite normal, considering I’m an international student.
I look forward to sharing, and to reporting on my endeavors in making headway on my bucket list!
It has been a pleasure to share the reports from students who participated in the Arctic Circle Assembly in Reykjavik last month. The final report comes from Kevin, who is in the LLM program.
Over a long weekend in October, Fletcher’s Maritime Studies Program led a 37-person contingent to the Arctic Circle Assembly in Reykjavik, Iceland. Hosted by a non-profit and non-partisan organization based in Reykjavik, the assembly brings together an interdisciplinary network of representatives from government, academia, NGOs, and indigenous communities to discuss development of the Arctic and its global relevance. For students honing the skills required to address complex problems from a multi-disciplinary perspective, the Arctic Circle Assembly offered a robust opportunity to learn about issues that will demand growing international attention in coming years.
While the conference agenda included a broad range of topics, as an American attorney with a Navy background, I found three to be particularly compelling. Each illustrates the multi-disciplinary nature of emerging issues: (i) East Asian Engagement in the Arctic, (ii) Legal Uncertainties in a Changing Environment, and (iii) The Role of the U.S. Coast Guard in the Arctic.
East Asian Engagement in the Arctic. Diplomatic representatives from China, Japan, and South Korea spoke during plenary meetings of the Arctic Circle Assembly, taking advantage of the opportunity to discuss their nations’ respective records of Arctic engagement and cooperation. The representatives emphasized their nations’ contributions to Arctic scientific research, while referencing their desire for an increased role in Arctic governance. The Chinese and Japanese representatives also specifically addressed opportunities for shared economic development. Taken together, the statements illustrated the geopolitical implications of opening Arctic sea lanes and prospective resource development in the central Arctic.
Legal Uncertainties in a Changing Environment. A number of speakers present for the Arctic Circle Assembly addressed implications of a changing Arctic environment for relevant legal regimes, from application of environmental protections under the Endangered Species Act in Alaska to unresolved questions associated with the United States’ voluntary exclusion from the UNCLOS regime and development of its continental shelf. Senior representatives from Iceland, Russia, and the United States also discussed questions related to fisheries management and migrating fish populations, a topic with significant implications for both domestic economies and international relations.
The Role of the United States Coast Guard in the Arctic. On the second day of the assembly, the Vice Commandant of the United States Coast Guard, Admiral Charles Michel, spoke to the combined delegation from The Fletcher School and Harvard Kennedy School. In a wide-ranging conversation, Admiral Michel discussed the size and significance of the United States icebreaking fleet, the Coast Guard’s support for scientific research in the Arctic, as well as the unique role the Coast Guard plays in building and maintaining relationships in the maritime domain.
On the whole, the Arctic Circle Assembly presented a vibrant opportunity to learn about matters of interest from people of differing experience and perspective, many of them at the forefront of their disciplines. It also proved an opportunity to build relationships with counterparts both from Fletcher and around the world. And, perks being what they are, many of us from the Fletcher contingent capped off the assembly with a drive over the Continental Rift. On the whole, a productive weekend!
(Kevin notes that the statements in this post are his own and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Department of Defense, U.S. Navy, or any of their components.)
Somehow I find myself more than halfway through the academic year with barely a mention of Fletcher’s three new study options. I did write earlier in the fall about one of the programs, then called the MTA — which was in the process of development even as we launched it in September — but it has taken me longer to catch up with the other new programs. Here, then, is an update.
The Master of Arts in Transatlantic Affairs (now called the MATA) will be offered, starting in September 2017, jointly with the College of Europe in Belgium. It will enable students to pursue a degree by splitting their time between the two campuses, and there is an internship component. You might have questions. So did we! And here they are, with answers. I’ve so far read a total of one MATA application, but more are in store for me.
Next up is a PhD in Economics and Public Policy, offered cooperatively by Fletcher and the Tufts University Department of Economics. The goal is for five students to enter the program each year, with the first students starting their studies in September 2017. Applications will be submitted to the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, which will award the ultimate degrees.
And last, a new LLM dual-degree program with the University of St. Gallen in Switzerland will give students the opportunity to earn both a Master of Laws in International Law (LLM) from Fletcher and a Master in International Law from St. Gallen after 18 months to two years of study.
All three of the programs are profiled in this Tufts Now article.
There was a time, way back in the day, when the Admissions Blog was just about the only game in town. Now the School and its various programs/groups maintain multiple Twitter feeds, Facebook pages, and even other blogs.
The LLM program, for example, has had its own blog since the start of this academic year. Though not all the information they share pertains to students in all degree programs, it’s still worth a look!
The subject of today’s Faculty Spotlight feature is John Allen Burgess, Professor of Practice and Executive Director of Fletcher’s LLM Program. In addition to his role as LLM director, he currently teaches Mergers and Acquisitions: An International Perspective, and Securities Regulation: An International Prospective.
Every semester, I have the privilege to enjoy a range of special experiences along with the Fletcher LLM students. From the fall, when we first get a chance to meet each other and other members of the law faculty at Professor Chayes’ beautiful home, to the spring, when we gather as a group off campus to hear about each other’s work and talk with a range of guests over lunch, a drink or dinner, the year is filled with so many chances to learn and to interact with each other.
But the experience I most enjoy is the High Table — an opportunity for the LLM students and law faculty to come together in a book-lined seminar room to learn from experts in various aspects of international law. It is the perfect location and atmosphere for off-the-record conversations on a wide range of issues.
I attended my first High Table in September 2014 — and immediately realized that it was a very special experience. Dr. Mohamed El-Baradei joined the group to discuss his experiences as Chairman of the International Atomic Energy Agency in both Iraq and Iran as well as his experiences during the Arab spring. It was an extraordinary opportunity to hear in a small group about the views of a Nobel prize winner, and learn more as he, my fellow faculty members, and the LLM students pursued an open dialogue across a wide range of topics.
As I now look back at the many High Tables I have attended, two things strike me. The first is the opportunity to meet and hear from people who have achieved amazing things in the law, often against extraordinary odds and challenges. Chief Judge Patricia Wald, who spoke to us regarding her work as Chair of the U.S. Privacy and Civil Liberties Oversight Board, was also a pioneer in so many respects — as a young mother who went to law school when few women attended and as the first woman Chief Justice of the DC Circuit. She then, instead of taking a well-earned retirement, served as a judge at the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, working to build a new international jurisprudence. The High Table’s intimate surroundings gave me a chance to see first-hand her intelligence, her humility, and the richness of her experience. It left me feeling both humble and deeply impressed.
The second special feature of the High Tables is the excitement of being exposed to legal issues that are outside my area of expertise. For example, earlier this year, Kingsley Moghalu, former Deputy Governor of the Bank of Nigeria, gave a provocative talk on issues of rule of law in emerging economies — he challenged our thinking on the issue and provoked an informative discussion among the group. Cravath partner Rory Millsom walked the group through the thicket of legal considerations surrounding targeted killing by drones, making some challenging points about the application of law to new technologies along the way.
No matter how many High Tables I have attended, I always leave the discussion knowing that I have learned something new and that I am lucky to be surrounded by such informed students and teachers. It’s a great feeling and a significant perk of my work at Fletcher.
I received a quick note this week from Marlene Houngbedji, who made an appearance on the blog earlier this year. She told me that she was just about to climb on a plane to Ireland to attend a conference at the National University of Ireland-Galway. Not just attend the conference, but present a paper she wrote for Prof. Mazurana’s class, which earned her an invitation to participate. Marlene is listed among the Parallel Session Speakers in the conference agenda, where you can also find the abstract of her talk.
Marlene completed the one-year LLM program in May, and she is currently working as a summer legal researcher for the Harvard Humanitarian Initiative-Harvard Humanitarian Academy. She will start a permanent position in the Refugee, Asylum, and International Operations Division of the Department of Homeland Security later this summer.
There are always gaps in what we’ve covered on the blog, and I regret that I haven’t written enough (or asked others to write enough) about the LL.M. program. This year I had heard talk around the office about a student who is very active in the community, so I reached out to Marlene Houngbedji to ask for her reflections on the program. Her thoughts on being an LLM student follow, rounding out a week when we have already heard from a graduate and a professor.
A doorway to major changes opened when I was admitted to the Fletcher School’s LL.M. program. My rather colorful pre-Fletcher professional journey had kept me away from the legal world for a long period. I had therefore been seeking a program that values international backgrounds while reinforcing prior (might I say: outdated?) knowledge of public international law. Although it feels like I started classes a mere few weeks ago, my first semester, the winter break and even a two-day New York career trip surreptitiously elapsed while I was busy being studious, and we’re already in our third week of the spring semester.
The time is therefore ripe for a mid-year assessment of my Fletcher post-graduate venture.
Balancing academic and professional goals
For me, acquiring experience in case law, and studying international law with a U.S. perspective are some of the program’s most valuable features. Not only does Fletcher’s LL.M. program cover a broader international legal range than other U.S. LL.M. programs to which I had considered applying, but it also offers students trained in civil law exposure to the common law system. I indeed find it fascinating to compare how universal legal concepts are interpreted from one system to the other. Some of my classmates and I never missed post-lecture opportunities to assail Professor Cerone with comments and questions on why legal theory is so different in the U.S., which made for quite heated yet entertaining fall-semester discussions!
The small number of students in the program permits frequent interactions with our faculty, which in turn, makes it easy to receive personalized guidance on course choices and professional goals. In speaking of the latter, our recent Office of Career Services-sponsored trip to New York introduced those of us interested in the legal profession to the UN Office of Legal Affairs (codification division) and to UN Women, dedicated to gender empowerment, among other organizations. Learning about the types of careers available to students of a discipline as abstract as international law has most definitely helped me choose my second semester classes accordingly.
I was not sure what to expect from world class faculty and my fellow students last semester, nor did I have a definite idea of what, as the recipient of a foreign law degree, was expected of me. Though I had decided what area of international law would become my field of expertise before applying to the Fletcher School, the variety of courses from which I could choose triggered a moment of panic. For a few days after classes began, it seemed that in picking classes in each division, to fulfill the breadth requirement, I was set to study topics with little to no relevance to traditional legal training. Apples and oranges in an academic setting.
Creating a personalized curriculum
The breadth of options turned out to work to my advantage, however, as it allowed me to tailor my curriculum to my academic and professional needs, while remaining within the requirements of the LL.M. program. My interest in human rights, protection of vulnerable groups in conflicts, and refugees’ and women’s issues prompted me to choose Professor Hannum’s International Human Rights Law, Professor Cerone’s International Humanitarian Law, Professors Mazurana and Stites’ Gender in Complex Humanitarian Emergencies, and to cross-register for a course in international refugee law at Harvard Law School. A corresponding practical apprenticeship at the Boston branch of the Harvard Immigration and Refugee Clinic doubled my course load, but the privilege of working on gender asylum cases added a real-life component to theory and increased my familiarity with the U.S. judicial system.
This was how I was able to understand how seemingly unrelated disciplines and course content can reconcile into a multi-faceted perspective on law. By graduation, I will have learned to legally analyze human security through gender and economic lenses, and to paint a legal triptych comprising human rights, humanitarian, and refugee law panels with gendered shades and nuances.
As it turns out, apples and oranges do mix, sometimes…
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