Currently viewing the tag: "LLM"

It has been a pleasure to share the reports from students who participated in the Arctic Circle Assembly in Reykjavik last month.  The final report comes from Kevin, who is in the LLM program.

Over a long weekend in October, Fletcher’s Maritime Studies Program led a 37-person contingent to the Arctic Circle Assembly in Reykjavik, Iceland.  Hosted by a non-profit and non-partisan organization based in Reykjavik, the assembly brings together an interdisciplinary network of representatives from government, academia, NGOs, and indigenous communities to discuss development of the Arctic and its global relevance.  For students honing the skills required to address complex problems from a multi-disciplinary perspective, the Arctic Circle Assembly offered a robust opportunity to learn about issues that will demand growing international attention in coming years.

Kevin (far right), Harris, and Katrina (whose report appeared on the blog last week).

While the conference agenda included a broad range of topics, as an American attorney with a Navy background, I found three to be particularly compelling.  Each illustrates the multi-disciplinary nature of emerging issues: (i) East Asian Engagement in the Arctic, (ii) Legal Uncertainties in a Changing Environment, and (iii) The Role of the U.S. Coast Guard in the Arctic.

East Asian Engagement in the Arctic.  Diplomatic representatives from China, Japan, and South Korea spoke during plenary meetings of the Arctic Circle Assembly, taking advantage of the opportunity to discuss their nations’ respective records of Arctic engagement and cooperation.  The representatives emphasized their nations’ contributions to Arctic scientific research, while referencing their desire for an increased role in Arctic governance.  The Chinese and Japanese representatives also specifically addressed opportunities for shared economic development.  Taken together, the statements illustrated the geopolitical implications of opening Arctic sea lanes and prospective resource development in the central Arctic.

Legal Uncertainties in a Changing Environment.  A number of speakers present for the Arctic Circle Assembly addressed implications of a changing Arctic environment for relevant legal regimes, from application of environmental protections under the Endangered Species Act in Alaska to unresolved questions associated with the United States’ voluntary exclusion from the UNCLOS regime and development of its continental shelf.  Senior representatives from Iceland, Russia, and the United States also discussed questions related to fisheries management and migrating fish populations, a topic with significant implications for both domestic economies and international relations.

The Role of the United States Coast Guard in the Arctic.  On the second day of the assembly, the Vice Commandant of the United States Coast Guard, Admiral Charles Michel, spoke to the combined delegation from The Fletcher School and Harvard Kennedy School.  In a wide-ranging conversation, Admiral Michel discussed the size and significance of the United States icebreaking fleet, the Coast Guard’s support for scientific research in the Arctic, as well as the unique role the Coast Guard plays in building and maintaining relationships in the maritime domain.

On the whole, the Arctic Circle Assembly presented a vibrant opportunity to learn about matters of interest from people of differing experience and perspective, many of them at the forefront of their disciplines.  It also proved an opportunity to build relationships with counterparts both from Fletcher and around the world.  And, perks being what they are, many of us from the Fletcher contingent capped off the assembly with a drive over the Continental Rift.  On the whole, a productive weekend!

(Kevin notes that the statements in this post are his own and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Department of Defense, U.S. Navy, or any of their components.)

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Somehow I find myself more than halfway through the academic year with barely a mention of Fletcher’s three new study options.  I did write earlier in the fall about one of the programs, then called the MTA — which was in the process of development even as we launched it in September — but it has taken me longer to catch up with the other new programs.  Here, then, is an update.

The Master of Arts in Transatlantic Affairs (now called the MATA) will be offered, starting in September 2017, jointly with the College of Europe in Belgium.  It will enable students to pursue a degree by splitting their time between the two campuses, and there is an internship component.  You might have questions.  So did we!  And here they are, with answers.  I’ve so far read a total of one MATA application, but more are in store for me.

Next up is a PhD in Economics and Public Policy, offered cooperatively by Fletcher and the Tufts University Department of Economics.  The goal is for five students to enter the program each year, with the first students starting their studies in September 2017.  Applications will be submitted to the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, which will award the ultimate degrees.

And last, a new LLM dual-degree program with the University of St. Gallen in Switzerland will give students the opportunity to earn both a Master of Laws in International Law (LLM) from Fletcher and a Master in International Law from St. Gallen after 18 months to two years of study.

All three of the programs are profiled in this Tufts Now article.

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There was a time, way back in the day, when the Admissions Blog was just about the only game in town.  Now the School and its various programs/groups maintain multiple Twitter feeds, Facebook pages, and even other blogs.

The LLM program, for example, has had its own blog since the start of this academic year.  Though not all the information they share pertains to students in all degree programs, it’s still worth a look!

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The subject of today’s Faculty Spotlight feature is John Allen Burgess, Professor of Practice and Executive Director of Fletcher’s LLM Program.  In addition to his role as LLM director, he currently teaches Mergers and Acquisitions: An International Perspective, and Securities Regulation: An International Prospective

Every semester, I have the privilege to enjoy a range of special experiences along with the Fletcher LLM students.  From the fall, when we first get a chance to meet each other and other members of the law faculty at Professor Chayes’ beautiful home, to the spring, when we gather as a group off campus to hear about each other’s work and talk with a range of guests over lunch, a drink or dinner, the year is filled with so many chances to learn and to interact with each other.

Photo credit: Matt Teuten for Tufts University

Photo credit: Matt Teuten for Tufts University

But the experience I most enjoy is the High Table — an opportunity for the LLM students and law faculty to come together in a book-lined seminar room to learn from experts in various aspects of international law.  It is the perfect location and atmosphere for off-the-record conversations on a wide range of issues.

I attended my first High Table in September 2014 — and immediately realized that it was a very special experience.  Dr. Mohamed El-Baradei joined the group to discuss his experiences as Chairman of the International Atomic Energy Agency in both Iraq and Iran as well as his experiences during the Arab spring.  It was an extraordinary opportunity to hear in a small group about the views of a Nobel prize winner, and learn more as he, my fellow faculty members, and the LLM students pursued an open dialogue across a wide range of topics.

As I now look back at the many High Tables I have attended, two things strike me.  The first is the opportunity to meet and hear from people who have achieved amazing things in the law, often against extraordinary odds and challenges.  Chief Judge Patricia Wald, who spoke to us regarding her work as Chair of the U.S. Privacy and Civil Liberties Oversight Board, was also a pioneer in so many respects — as a young mother who went to law school when few women attended and as the first woman Chief Justice of the DC Circuit.  She then, instead of taking a well-earned retirement, served as a judge at the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, working to build a new international jurisprudence.  The High Table’s intimate surroundings gave me a chance to see first-hand her intelligence, her humility, and the richness of her experience.  It left me feeling both humble and deeply impressed.

The second special feature of the High Tables is the excitement of being exposed to legal issues that are outside my area of expertise.  For example, earlier this year, Kingsley Moghalu, former Deputy Governor of the Bank of Nigeria, gave a provocative talk on issues of rule of law in emerging economies — he challenged our thinking on the issue and provoked an informative discussion among the group.  Cravath partner Rory Millsom walked the group through the thicket of legal considerations surrounding targeted killing by drones, making some challenging points about the application of law to new technologies along the way.

No matter how many High Tables I have attended, I always leave the discussion knowing that I have learned something new and that I am lucky to be surrounded by such informed students and teachers.  It’s a great feeling and a significant perk of my work at Fletcher.

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I received a quick note this week from Marlene Houngbedji, who made an appearance on the blog earlier this year.  She told me that she was just about to climb on a plane to Ireland to attend a conference at the National University of Ireland-Galway.  Not just attend the conference, but present a paper she wrote for Prof. Mazurana’s class, which earned her an invitation to participate.  Marlene is listed among the Parallel Session Speakers in the conference agenda, where you can also find the abstract of her talk.

Marlene completed the one-year LLM program in May, and she is currently working as a summer legal researcher for the Harvard Humanitarian Initiative-Harvard Humanitarian Academy.  She will start a permanent position in the Refugee, Asylum, and International Operations Division of the Department of Homeland Security later this summer.

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There are always gaps in what we’ve covered on the blog, and I regret that I haven’t written enough (or asked others to write enough) about the LL.M. program.  This year I had heard talk around the office about a student who is very active in the community, so I reached out to Marlene Houngbedji to ask for her reflections on the program.  Her thoughts on being an LLM student follow, rounding out a week when we have already heard from a graduate and a professor.

Marlene HA doorway to major changes opened when I was admitted to the Fletcher School’s LL.M. program.  My rather colorful pre-Fletcher professional journey had kept me away from the legal world for a long period.  I had therefore been seeking a program that values international backgrounds while reinforcing prior (might I say: outdated?) knowledge of public international law.  Although it feels like I started classes a mere few weeks ago, my first semester, the winter break and even a two-day New York career trip surreptitiously elapsed while I was busy being studious, and we’re already in our third week of the spring semester.

The time is therefore ripe for a mid-year assessment of my Fletcher post-graduate venture.

Balancing academic and professional goals

For me, acquiring experience in case law, and studying international law with a U.S. perspective are some of the program’s most valuable features.  Not only does Fletcher’s LL.M. program cover a broader international legal range than other U.S. LL.M. programs to which I had considered applying, but it also offers students trained in civil law exposure to the common law system.  I indeed find it fascinating to compare how universal legal concepts are interpreted from one system to the other.  Some of my classmates and I never missed post-lecture opportunities to assail Professor Cerone with comments and questions on why legal theory is so different in the U.S., which made for quite heated yet entertaining fall-semester discussions!

The small number of students in the program permits frequent interactions with our faculty, which in turn, makes it easy to receive personalized guidance on course choices and professional goals.  In speaking of the latter, our recent Office of Career Services-sponsored trip to New York introduced those of us interested in the legal profession to the UN Office of Legal Affairs (codification division) and to UN Women, dedicated to gender empowerment, among other organizations.  Learning about the types of careers available to students of a discipline as abstract as international law has most definitely helped me choose my second semester classes accordingly.

I was not sure what to expect from world class faculty and my fellow students last semester, nor did I have a definite idea of what, as the recipient of a foreign law degree, was expected of me.  Though I had decided what area of international law would become my field of expertise before applying to the Fletcher School, the variety of courses from which I could choose triggered a moment of panic.  For a few days after classes began, it seemed that in picking classes in each division, to fulfill the breadth requirement, I was set to study topics with little to no relevance to traditional legal training.  Apples and oranges in an academic setting.

Creating a personalized curriculum

The breadth of options turned out to work to my advantage, however, as it allowed me to tailor my curriculum to my academic and professional needs, while remaining within the requirements of the LL.M. program.  My interest in human rights, protection of vulnerable groups in conflicts, and refugees’ and women’s issues prompted me to choose Professor Hannum’s International Human Rights Law, Professor Cerone’s International Humanitarian Law, Professors Mazurana and Stites’ Gender in Complex Humanitarian Emergencies, and to cross-register for a course in international refugee law at Harvard Law School.  A corresponding practical apprenticeship at the Boston branch of the Harvard Immigration and Refugee Clinic doubled my course load, but the privilege of working on gender asylum cases added a real-life component to theory and increased my familiarity with the U.S. judicial system.

This was how I was able to understand how seemingly unrelated disciplines and course content can reconcile into a multi-faceted perspective on law.  By graduation, I will have learned to legally analyze human security through gender and economic lenses, and to paint a legal triptych comprising human rights, humanitarian, and refugee law panels with gendered shades and nuances.

As it turns out, apples and oranges do mix, sometimes…

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An annual Fletcher tradition is the “Faculty and Staff Waits on You” dinner, which is pretty much what it sounds like.  And an annual tradition of the event is the auction of, well, all sorts of interesting stuff provided by the community.  And a tradition of the auction is to provide the funds raised to a worthy organization.  This year, the funds went to AYO, an NGO with which a 2012 LLM graduate, Sevan Karian, is working.  Sevan contacted me recently with information about AYO and the auction.  I asked him to tell me more.

AYO means “YES” in Armenian (and could also mean “Armenian Youth Organization”).  This is the new name we’ve just chosen on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of our organization.  Today, AYO’s mission is to help the unprivileged kids of Armenia through education programs, using sports and arts as tools for their development.

AYO builds or improves schools, orphanages, and kindergartens in very poor and remote villages of the country, as well as the infrastructure to practice sports and arts around these buildings.  In addition, AYO organizes summer camps every year in these villages, thanks to dozens of volunteers coming from France and elsewhere to spend a month with the children to teach them new skills.  This video tells AYO’s story:

I became involved in AYO after 2005, when I had lived with indigenous communities in southern Mexico (Chiapas).  I realized that I really wanted to be involved with a development aid organization in order to help people, and particularly children, in need.  Back in Paris, I met by chance with the former leaders of AYO.  They were looking for young people to revitalize this organization, which was falling apart.  With a few friends, I devoted my free time over the next five years — when I was a law student and then a lawyer — to restructuring the organization, restoring contact with local populations in Armenia, as well as finding and organizing new projects in poor villages, which have taken place every summer since 2007!

Originally a lawyer in the energy and business sector in Paris, I came to Fletcher in 2011 for the the LLM program and I took the amazing John Hammock’s class on NGO Management and Ethics.  This helped me a lot to frame my goals for AYO toward professionalization of the organization, and its expansion.  I am now working almost full-time with AYO, trying to find more funds and more projects.  Better organized and more efficient, AYO currently has an office in Paris with two interns, two workers in Armenia, and now a branch of the NGO opening in Boston!

With auction bids on prizes such as a dinner for two at Dean Bosworth’s house or a bow tie offered by Professor Henrikson, AYO collected around $7,000 and has new volunteers in the U.S.

I hope we will continue in this way and that AYO will be able to run several construction projects and summer camps in 2013 in Armenia, with the participation of French and also U.S. volunteers!

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Regular blog readers know how I feel about volunteers — I love them!  Especially volunteer blog writers.  Here, interim LLM program director (and LLM alum) Hyejin Park, follows up on her first post with a run-down of fall semester out-of-class activities for LLM students.

I can’t believe it’s already the end of the semester!  It’s always with mixed feelings that I find myself at this time of the year – relief at making it to the end, combined with bittersweet feelings at having to let go of another piece of my life, especially if that piece is filled with so many exciting memories.  In this sense, December does seem to be a time of major transition, as well as of thanksgiving.

Finishing off the fall semester, the LLM class had several more out-of-class activities.  One of them was our third High Table, featuring Andrew Loewenstein, partner at Foley Hoag LLP’s Boston office.  As someone with an extensive experience in international litigation and arbitration, including disputes involving public international law, he was in an excellent position to comment on the topic of “Representing Sovereign States before the International Court of Justice (ICJ) and Other International Courts and Tribunals.”  Since his perspective was that of a counsel and advocate in these proceedings, he focused on providing the behind-the-scenes views as to what litigating international disputes involves in practice.  The class got to hear all about the strategic and tactical decisions that go into conceiving, planning, and proving the parties’ claims and defenses, which is an enlightening subject for any international lawyer, and certainly for our LLM students.

Another event took us to downtown Boston, for a November visit to the Massachusetts government.  We combined our visits to all three branches of the state government in a day’s trip, as the John Adams Courthouse is adjacent to the State House, home to both the state legislature and the Governor’s Office.  Fittingly for a field trip, a classic yellow school bus took us to our first destination, which was the State House.

Guided by Anthony, the State House tour director, the members of our LLM class from 13 different countries had a glimpse of how a state legislature and executive work under the U.S. federal system, including how state laws are made and how they interact with federal and international laws.  Students also had a chance to expand on the comparative insight when they sat down with our local representatives, Senator Patricia Jehlen and Representative Paul Donato, to hear more about state legislative activities.

Our next stop was the John Adams Courthouse, home to the Supreme Judicial Court (the state’s highest appellate court) and the Massachusetts Appeals Court (the state’s intermediate appellate court).  Here, our gracious host was the Honorable Robert Cordy, Associate Justice of the SJC and also a member of the Fletcher LLM Program’s Advisory Council.  He personally took the class on a guided tour of the Courthouse, sharing all the fascinating stories behind each corner of the architecture.  He even let our LLM students sit on the seats of the seven Justices of the SJC!

Thanks to our welcoming hosts, our very international LLM class was fortunate to have the chance to get a little more acquainted with the fascinating Commonwealth of Massachusetts, which is at once steeped in history and very much forward-looking.  Back on campus, my best wishes to all, and congratulations to the LLM students on the conclusion of the first half of their academic year!

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Although this video is some months old, it only recently found its way to me. It shows Fletcher Professor Louis Aucoin pursuing his current work as the United Nations Deputy Special Representative for Liberia.  Prof. Aucoin has been on leave for two semesters, but is planning to return to Fletcher at the conclusion of his UN work.  The video presents a special example of how professors’ (and, for that matter, students’) professional and academic experiences come together.

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Among the many topics to which I don’t give enough attention is the LLM program.  To correct this situation, I’ve asked Hyejin Park, the program’s interim director to provide some updates.  Hyejin is a 2012 graduate of the program, and she is covering for program director (and another graduate) Susan Simone, while Susan is on maternity leave.  Here’s Hyejin’s report on her trip last weekend to New York for an event.

I spent last weekend in New York City, escaping only a short time before Hurricane Sandy, for the annual International Law Weekend 2012, which the Fletcher School co-sponsored.  It was an intense two days of intellectually stimulating panels on public and private international law topics, with practitioners, academics, and students from across the East Coast in attendance – a fitting occasion for the Fletcher LLM Program to be represented.  One of the panels, entitled “Metatheory of International Law,” featured Fletcher’s very own Professor Joel Trachtman.

Now back in Medford, I am only beginning to realize what a whirlwind of two months the start of the academic year has been.  We welcomed 17 students from 13 different countries into the Fletcher LLM Class of 2013, including one MALD/LLM joint degree candidate.  As has been the case with the four preceding LLM alumni classes, the constituent members of the current LLM class bring with them an incredibly diverse range of life and work experience, and exhibit a deep engagement with international law.

Our High Table luncheon series is well underway, with talks thus far by the Hon. Robert Cordy, Associate Justice of the Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts, and Stuart Kerr, Director of Legal and Regulatory Affairs at the Millennium Challenge Corporation.  In the spring semester, we will host, among others, Meg Kinnear, Secretary-General of the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID).

The corridors of Fletcher these days tend to seem relatively calm and quiet on the surface.  I’d like to think it must have something to do with students being deeply immersed in their midterm assignments, ranging from papers on human rights law and trade law, to simulated negotiations on treaty law.  I look forward to being back on the blog soon with some more updates on the LLM Program.

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