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Sorry for my week-long silence!  We’re at one of those points in the year when it’s hard to make time for creative blogging.  And that makes it a perfect day to highlight two student initiatives, both of which provide community and personal nourishment.

The first is a lovely little offering from “the Yellow House” (the inhabitants of one of the houses on the perimeter of campus that is rented perennially by Fletcher students).  Starting last semester, the Yellow House folks have invited the community for weekly Hot Cocoa Fridays.  Warm drinks and friendship are served.  An especially relaxing way to close out the week.

And another meal-based activity comes from the Culinary Diplomacy Club.  Fletcher Feasts is a series of dinners offered and attended by students, faculty, and staff.  The club reports that over 280 people have participated as guests or hosts this year.  Hosts are invited to prepare a meal of their choice and to say how many others (between four and ten) they can accommodate.   The guests pay a modest fee to cover the costs of the hosts, and the small gatherings ensure conversation.  The fifth Fletcher Feast took place last week and another is already on the calendar for March.

Whether through an official organization or some folks’ generosity, student-led events such as these add so much to the community, ensuring connections among students who may not meet in the classroom or other more formal settings.  And in the case of Hot Cocoa Fridays or Fletcher Feasts, those who attend get a hot drink or a meal, too!

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Coming up next week: A full schedule of discussions of super timely topics.  For this fourth annual Innovate Tufts Week, the Fletcher student organizers invite all to join a week of “mindful disruption, as we deconstruct the world’s most pressing challenges, work through tangible solutions, and ultimately arrive at actionable outcomes—innovation in practice.”

Here’s the rundown of the Innovate Tufts: Fletcher Disrupts events, which I have taken directly from the email invitation I received this week.  Visitors are welcome and the descriptions include the option to sign up.  Note that the venues are close to Fletcher on the Tufts Medford/Somerville campus.

Fletcher Disrupts: The Refugee Crisis
Sunday, February 12, 2:00 p.m. to 6:00 p.m.

Cheryl A. Chase Center, Tufts University

This human-centered design workshop, led by Continuum Innovation, will address the state of the world’s refugees and internally displaced people in 2017. Following overviews by guest speakers from six Boston-based refugee organizations, participants will work together in groups to develop creative approaches to tackle varying refugee challenges, receiving feedback from practitioners and refugees as they map out solutions. Sign up here early to ensure your spot in the workshop!

Fletcher Disrupts: Dusting Off Diplomacy
Monday, February 13, 5:00 p.m. to 7:30 p.m.

Breed Memorial Hall, 51 Winthrop Street

This session will highlight innovative approaches to diplomacy, including climate diplomacy, culinary diplomacy, start-up diplomacy, and science diplomacy! Experts from each area will outline the idea behind their disruptive approach and discuss how it succeeds in “dusting off diplomacy.” A pitch idea exchange will follow (sign up here if you’d like to pitch your idea!), enabling demo participants active in the innovation community a chance to present their novel approaches and get on-the-spot expert feedback. Register here to attend.

Fletcher Disrupts: Colombia’s Struggle for Peace (A Case Study)
Wednesday, February 15, 5:00 p.m. to 7:00 p.m.

Cheryl A. Chase Center, Tufts University

Using recent events in Colombia as a case study, this session will highlight innovative techniques being utilized in Colombia’s peacebuilding process. With expert facilitators, participants will delve into the four-steps of peacebuilding — conflict prevention, management, aftermath, and rebuilding — and learn about innovative peacebuilding techniques Colombia has employed in each stage and where it can move from here. Register here to attend.

Fletcher Disrupts: Networking
Thursday, February 16, 6:30 p.m. to 8:30 p.m.

Cabot 7th Floor, Tufts University

Join us for networking disrupted—an opportunity to network with speakers and guests from throughout the week, as well as professionals from various sectors working on innovation in their fields. This “world cafe” style event will feature a roundtable setup, with each table covered in butcher paper and supplies in order to facilitate the exchange of ideas and visual tying-together of sessions from throughout the week. Register here to attend.

Questions?  You can email the Innovate Tufts organizers.  And you can follow the discussions on Twitter.

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Today I’d like to wrap up the fall semester reports from our first-year Student Stories writers.  We’ll hear about Mariya’s semester and, particularly, her experience in the Arts of Communication class.

Mariya on campusAs I boarded my flight to Washington, DC from Boston Logan International Airport on December 17, I breathed a sigh of relief that my first semester was finally over.  But a few moments later, the math major in me realized that a quarter of my entire graduate career was behind me.  With this epiphany, I felt both sad and surprised at how quickly time flies.  I had been so consumed with my classes, activities, campus lectures, and studying in Ginn Library’s “Hogwarts” room, that how September became December?  This I do not remember.

OK, so I know that was kind of corny, but I hope it made for a good sound bite.  As I reflect on my classes from the fall semester, Arts of Communication stands out as particularly special, challenging, and rewarding.  I must admit, however, that I initially had no intention of taking this course after browsing through Fletcher’s course catalog that brimmed with exciting classes across diverse disciplines, regional studies, and practical skills.  I accidentally stumbled upon Arts of Communication during Shopping Day and became intrigued by the syllabus and Professor Mihir Mankad’s pitch.  I went back to the ever-stressful task of finalizing my course schedule and scribbled in Wednesday evenings for a full-semester course on how to become an effective communicator.

In Arts of Communication — or AoC for short — we learned by doing.  We learned to connect with an audience by practicing logos, pathos, and ethos in our presentations.  We recorded ourselves as we learned to face the camera and report from a studio.  We practiced job interviews, debated controversial issues, and held press conferences (where I acted as the recently elected Muslim mayor of Chicago).  Perhaps most important, we learned through active listening and observing, as well as giving and receiving feedback with humility.  We were very fortunate that our class coincided with the U.S. presidential election, which enriched our learning experience.  The campaign cycle provided live debates, speeches, and advertisements for us to dissect and analyze.

What made AoC unique among my fall semester courses, however, was the appeal to different emotions and the closeness of the class.  I did not expect a graduate course to make me laugh and cry; yet, I found myself chuckling as my peers amused the class with wit, and silently sobbing as they shared personal experiences.  Through speeches, debates, videos, and impromptu gigs, AoC continually pushed us out of our comfort zones, yet our common vulnerability and trust in each other bonded us as a community.  By the middle of the course, we had become a family that looked after each other and served as a mutual support system.

Mariya in MurrowThe course itself was time-consuming and challenging.  At the beginning of the semester, Professor Mankad said that becoming a better speaker would require dedication outside of the class.  The video assignment, for example, took me hours to complete: in addition to careful coordination of attire, setting, sound and lighting, I edited my clips into a coherent movie.  Although I felt frustrated during the process, I am grateful to the patience of my classmate Yutaro, who taught me iMovie software so that I could produce a six-minute Snapchat video.  Similarly, the “value speech” was a challenging exercise for me.  Modeled on the “This I Believe” project, the purpose of the exercise was to write and share in four minutes a core value that guides our daily lives.  I reflected deeply upon my life experiences, went through multiple iterations of speechwriting, and spent days rehearsing my value speech with family, friends, and roommates.  I delivered a speech about why one particular conversation with my father made me realize how much I value his support.

Through AoC, we grew as individuals and as a class.  We will share the special bond we forged in this course for the rest of our lives, and for that we are truly grateful to Professor Mankad.  As, in his past career, he had been a television anchor in India, a consultant for top firms, and a director of a foundation, Professor Mankad brought a depth of experience to the classroom.  Moreover, his dedication to all 60 of his students — 30 in the full course, 30 in the module-version of the class — was evident by his accessibility, detailed feedback, and time he spent listening to hundreds of speeches.  It is no surprise the course has attracted the highest numbers of cross-registered students at Fletcher.  In my conversations with Professor Mankad, he told me that his favorite parts of teaching AoC is getting to know each student’s story, and helping them improve in this important area.  To express our gratitude, students organized a flash mob to the tune of a commercial Professor Mankad once performed in, and created a tribute video to surprise him at the semester-end’s celebration.

I am eager to apply the skills I have gained in AoC in all aspects of my life.  My first stab of pushing myself as a public speaker was in early December at a forum organized by the Fletcher International Law Students Association, where I presented on the legal aspects of UN Article 2(4), a topic I had become extremely interested in through my International Organizations course.

This semester, I am eager to take a course at Harvard, switch up my extracurricular activities, and participate in the conferences I have been helping to organize.  However, I am the most excited about co-leading Fletcher’s first-ever spring break trek to Pakistan (which received over 50 applications!) with my peers Ahmad and Seher.  Stay tuned, because my next post will probably be from Islamabad or Lahore, inshallah!

Mariya's AoC class

The AoC class celebrates at the end of the semester.

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Continuing the fall semester wrap-ups from the first-year Student Stories writers, today we’ll hear from Pulkit, who tells us about his involvement with The Fletcher Forum of World Affairs.

The Fletcher Forum of World Affairs is one of the premier journals of The Fletcher School.  It was established in 1975, and the first edition came out in the fall of 1976.  It therefore makes sense to celebrate this journal as it completes forty years of publication.

The first edition of The Fletcher Forum.

The first edition of The Fletcher Forum.

I first learned about The Forum long before I had even thought of applying to Fletcher, as I was skimming through the profiles of one of Fletcher’s eminent alumni from India, Shashi Tharoor, who also happened to be the founding editor of The Forum.  So, when I started school in Fall 2016, one of my first actions was to apply to become a member of the editorial team of the journal.  I went through the written application process, and an interview to be drafted as a print staff editor.

After joining the team, I learned more about The Forum and its editorial process.  The Forum is a student-run journal published twice a year that covers a wide breadth of topics in international affairs.  It also has an online platform, on which additional articles and interviews are published.  Currently, the team has thirty-four members and is divided among three teams: print, web, and business and external relations.  The print staff has four teams of four members, each led by a senior print editor.  Teams are responsible for soliciting and editing articles for the print edition.  Similarly, the web staff has three teams of four members each and is primarily responsible for managing the online forum.  Both of these teams are overseen by the managing print or web editor, respectively.  The business and external relations team is responsible for managing subscriptions, advertising and external relations.  The editor-in-chief is responsible for overseeing these different functions in total.  In the past, The Forum has been led by some exceptional alumni, including former American diplomat Jeffrey D. Feltman and Fletcher Women’s Leadership Award recipient Cornelia Schneider.

The Forum’s editorial process is very rigorous and goes through multiple iterations.  The first draft as received from the writer is put through three cycles of edits.  The first cycle includes global edits, which refers to editing the article for content, overarching argument and thesis, structure, flow, and logic.  The editor will rearrange sentences and paragraphs to ensure the article has a clear, logical, and thoughtful flow.  The second cycle includes local edits, which refers to the spelling, grammar, punctuation, and sentence structure.  The third cycle involves editing the citations.  The Forum follows the Chicago Manual for editing, but over the years has developed its own style, guidelines, and citation rules.  Once the three cycles are done by the print staff editors, the senior editor runs another review.  The edited piece is then sent back to the writer for approval and changes.  This final step can involve a lot of back-and-forth with the author, as sometimes they may have edits or additions of their own that then need to be reviewed.

ForumThe fall semester was busy.  My team and I were successful in soliciting three article submissions and we edited three additional articles for publishing.  As you can imagine, editing articles is not always easy.  There will always be one that ends up taking more time than what you initially budgeted.  During a busy school week, this can become strenuous.

And this is not the end in the life cycle of an article getting published in The Forum.  After the article is finally edited, it is sent to the designer, who designs the article and sends it back to the staff for one final check.  The staff then quickly runs through the article to check for any remaining errors, always keenly on the lookout for the missing Oxford comma.

While solicitations and editing is just one aspect of a functional journal, there are numerous other tasks that are looked after by the journal’s management and leadership.  These include managing the team, making sure timelines are adhered to, ensuring there is a constant supply of quality articles, and most importantly, managing the budget.

Apart from work, The Forum folks also have fun.  At the beginning of the semester the leadership hosted a barbeque for the incoming staff.  For Thanksgiving, a potluck dinner was organized.  I have learned so much by being a part of this exceptional team.  I picked up valuable editing skills, and also learned how to manage my time — balancing academics and my extra-curriculars.

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With a semester in their rear-view mirrors, the first-year Student Stories writers are ready to reflect on fall 2016 at Fletcher.  Today, Adi wraps up his first months of graduate study and tells us about the rapid evolution of his career objectives.

Adi, panel2As the clock in Mugar 200 hit 11:30 and I submitted my final exam for Accounting, a realization hit my mind as well: I did it!  My first semester of graduate school was done.  I thought it was special that I began the semester in that exact same classroom.  I reflected back to that first day of my pre-session course in August, a wide-eyed new graduate student attempting to readjust to student life.  I had introduced myself to my classmates as an Indonesian, three years out of undergraduate, looking to identify new ways that the private sector can be involved in development beyond the typical corporate social responsibility programs.  Thinking back to that August day, I also saw how my professional dreams have changed and evolved throughout those five months.

Within the first week of my pre-session, I remember attending two discussion talks by two different faculty members at Fletcher, Professor Kim Wilson and Professor Patrick Schena.  Professor Wilson talked about financial inclusion through the lens of her research into how underserved communities in Jordan were enabled by money-transfer technologies, allowing them to take part in the market economy cycle.  Listening to this talk, I was intrigued by the idea and started thinking about the possibility of bringing the financial inclusion model back to Indonesia after I finish my Fletcher education (or, if the model already exists, to find ways to further develop it).  Here, my interest had already evolved beyond my first-day introduction.  I thought about how I was not attached to the idea of the private sector being involved in development.  I was more interested in looking at a private-sector model being utilized in the development setting.  This is where my interest in Professor Wilson’s talk originated.  Financial inclusion as an way to provide a platform for the targeted community to obtain capital resources, as opposed to simply giving them development aid, is a much more sustainable model.

A couple of days later I attended Professor Schena’s talk on the sovereign wealth fund (SWF) model.  Using the example of the Norwegian SWF, Professor Schena discussed how the Norwegian government’s annual budget for national spending was significantly affected by the return the SWF generated that year.  During this discussion, he introduced the idea of impact investing.  A relatively new idea, impact investing has been gaining traction within the investment management sphere.  More and more investment managers are pressured by their investors to allocate a significant portion of their portfolio to securities that have social impact.  Prior to Fletcher, I had no exposure to or understanding of the investment management space, let alone impact investing.  Nonetheless, I found the idea to be fascinating.  Thus, after this talk, I thought about how to incorporate impact investing into my career aspirations.  Understanding that I would first need to be familiar with investment management before jumping into impact investing, I ended up enrolling in Professor Schena’s Global Investment Management class.

Adi, batikOrientation came and went, and the fall semester began.  I met my new classmates, both first years and second years, exchanging information on what we did before Fletcher as well as what we wanted to do after graduation.  Despite the wide range of interests and backgrounds, I noticed that most Fletcher students wanted to have an impact, be it through non-profits, diplomacy, government, international organizations, entrepreneurship, or the private sector.  It was thus fascinating to hear about different ways that impact can be created.  Personally, I collected these ideas to continue to clarify my personal goals, as well as to see which ideas I could bring back and implement in Indonesia.  Nonetheless, for a while during the semester, my career planning continued to focus on finding ways to implement financial inclusion (through financial technology) and impact investing in the development context.  Then I talked to Professor Alnoor Ebrahim.

Professor Ebrahim introduced me to the idea of social impact bonds.  As a professor of social change, Professor Ebrahim was very familiar with the idea of a market approach to development, as well as the evolution of public-private partnership models.  At that point in the semester, I was pretty deep into my Corporate Finance, Accounting, and Investment Management classes, and I was familiar with bonds.  Nonetheless, I had never heard of the social impact bond model.  As it turns out, it was a model that brought together non-profits, government, and corporations (in the form of investors).  The idea was that non-profits would run a program to answer a particular social need in the society.  This program would be attached to a bond with a set of metrics defining what constitutes success.  An investor would purchase this bond, and should the program reach its success metric, the investor would be paid interest by the government.  Prior to Fletcher, my work was building partnerships between non-profits, governments agencies, and corporations in the health sector in Indonesia.  Thus, this social impact bond model was thoroughly fascinating to me.  The way I thought about my career developed again.  This model was how I would combine my developing interest in financial inclusion with impact investing.  This was the model that I was going to research further to see if it could be implemented in Indonesia.

Looking back, my first five months at Fletcher have been amazing.  The courses, the student organizations, the activities, and the discussions have provided me with incredible insights into what is possible out there.  I came into Fletcher thinking I had a solid grasp of what I wanted to do after graduation.  Yet, as I conclude the winter break at the end of my first semester, I have realized how much my goals have been evolving.  With every new discussion with a professor, lunch talk with a classmate, or simply another session for a required course such as Corporate Finance, I have learned new specific ways my goals can be adjusted.  I am extremely happy that I had this much needed winter break, following the enormous effort it took to complete the first semester.  Nonetheless, seeing how much my aspirations have evolved in these first five months, I personally cannot wait to see what the next three semesters at Fletcher will have to offer.

Adi, class

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Students have been sharing their stories on the blog for quite a while now, but this is the first year when one of the writers pursued an exchange semester.  Ever-intrepid Tatsuo spent the fall at Sciences Po in Paris.

In the third semester of my MALD study, I decided to join an exchange program in Paris.  I wanted to study international relations from another viewpoint, though I know that Fletcher and the hills of Medford/Somerville are the best place in the world to study.

Tatsuo, Courtyard_of_SciencesPoI spent my semester at the Paris School of International Affairs at Sciences Po.  Sciences Po is one of the best schools for politics and international relations in Europe.  It was founded in 1872 just after Franco-Prussian War.  French elites were shocked by their country’s defeat and also impressed by the power of Prussia, and they faced the need to change their education system.  Sciences Po was the result of the effort to improve French practical education, based on the philosophy of political realism.  The symbol of the school, the fox and lion, originated from Machiavelli’s phrase “be smart as a fox and be strong as a lion,” and shows what the founders felt they needed.

At Sciences Po, I took five courses — Grand Strategy in Diplomacy, Past and Present; Building Long-Term Relationships and Sharing Value with Stakeholders; Political Speechwriting; African Key Economic Issues; and Economics and Globalization — to earn four Fletcher credits, and I audited two more courses, Japanese Politics and International Relations; and French A1 (elementary French).

All the courses I took, except French A1, were taught in English; thus, the basic materials and styles were not so different from what I encountered at Fletcher, but there were still some interesting differences between a French (or European) school and an American school.

For diplomatic issues, I took a grand strategy course, mainly focusing on security strategies, taught by the former minister of foreign affairs of Costa Rica.  In the course, and in other discussions of diplomatic topics, people mainly followed realism — based on basic political realism theory and great figures like Machiavelli, Clausewitz, and Bismarck who I “met” in the U.S.  However, the “realism” I studied in Paris was a little different from what I learned in the United States.  In discussions I had at Fletcher and other places in the U.S., people argued the survival of the state must outweigh all other concerns.  Thus, there were many options that could be taken, including unlawful or unethical means.  Additionally, the strategies for security tend to justify unilateral actions.  On the other hand, the discussions in Paris I faced tended to exclude such unlawful, unethical, or unilateral options, intentionally or unintentionally.

Classroom view.

Classroom view.

On development issues, French development studies consider the historic background of developing areas, while American studies mainly focus on the current situation.  Sometimes, French professors’ attitudes looked more emotional than rational.  On the other hand, these attitudes or analyses brought me a deeper understanding of the regions and the people to be developed.  Additionally, these attitudes were understandable and maybe useful for me, a Japanese development officer, because we also have complex historical backgrounds with the Asian countries we once occupied.

One of the most interesting courses in Paris was Political Speechwriting.  In the French school, theoretical studies seemed to be the majority, while American professional schools like case studies.  Even in the practical course for speechwriting, the professor took a lot of time to introduce many theories of Greek and Roman rhetoric.  When I took the course, it was the very interesting time after Brexit.  In that context, the professor analyzed American presidential debates and shared his concerns about the French presidential election coming up next spring.  Through the course, I realized the great advantage of theoretical studies.  At that time, most American (and global) media criticized Trump’s speeches and judged Clinton to be the winner of the debates.  On the other hand, the professor evaluated Trump’s speeches in terms of their technical rhetoric while many people, including me, tended to analyze the speeches based on their content.  The result of the election proved the advantage of objective/unbiased analysis based on theoretical studies.

Generally, my semester was a great opportunity to learn a lot regarding the different perspectives of the U.S. and Europe.  In Japan, we tend to think of “the West” as a single actor and a single set of values.  In the U.S., we tend to think of the American standard as the global standard.  The three months in Paris gave me the background knowledge to avoid such misunderstandings.

It was surely true that everything went well in Paris.  But I missed the family atmosphere at Fletcher, including its flexible and warm administrative offices and the close connections between students and faculty.  I also missed the great academic resources around Boston.   And I also love the comfortable hilltop more than the crowded buildings filled by thousands of students in the small campus in the middle of Paris.

In the end, the three-month exchange program was both long enough and short enough for me, even if it was too short to learn French, to explore Paris and other areas of France and Europe, and to enjoy the great food and drink culture.

Tatsuo, Enjoying_TheHistoricalArtictic_City

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Two pieces of news for those interested in studying entrepreneurship at Fletcher.  The first is actually an update on a previous post, highlighting Adelante, the new venture launched by current MALD student Peter Sacco.  Two nice stories recently appeared in local press locations, BostInno and yesterday’s Sunday Boston Globe and Adelante’s Kickstarter campaign has exceeded the original goal with nearly 300 backers!

The second piece of news is that there are second-round winners of Fletcher’s D-Prize!  The two proposals are:

ComeOnGirls: Raise scholarships for rural girls in China to attend secondary school through social media marketing and public speaking, submitted by Meghan Li, first-year MALD student; and

Light Afghanistan: Develop a solar market in Afghanistan, where approximately only 35% of the country has consistent electric power, submitted by Michael Baskin, Fletcher PhD candidate.

From here, Meghan and Michael have six weeks to submit a business plan and build a team to pilot their start-ups.  To that end, last week they presented their concepts to members of the community who might want to be part of the team.  The final decision on awarding seed funds to one of these ventures will come on March 2, 2017.

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Shoe1Shoe2As I still have a large group of people coming over for dinner tonight, I will not join the U.S. tradition of shopping today.  But if you’re looking for shoes (or information about the entrepreneurial activities of Fletcher students), check out this story about second-year MALD student Peter Sacco and his new social enterprise, Adelante Shoe Co., which he is launching this month.  Peter notes that Adelante “is dedicated to making it absolutely effortless for you to buy a socially responsible pair of shoes without compromising on quality, style or affordability.”  His Kickstarter campaign starts today, and if you choose to buy a pair of shoes, you’ll be a member of Adelante’s Founders Club.  Or just check out the website and find out what Adelante is all about.

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You’ll recall that a group of Fletcher students joined the climate discussions in Morocco earlier this month.  The Tufts Institute of the Environment asked a few of these delegates to write about their experience.  Here are two reports from second-year MALD students.

Fatima Quraishi

FatimaI am a second-year MALD student interested in international environment resource policy and climate change. While at COP22 in Morocco, I had the opportunity to attend several interesting discussions seeking to scale up renewable energy deployment and meet the 2-degree target if not the more ambitious 1.5 degree. This is in no way enough, and should be necessarily supplemented by the controversial phasing out of fossil fuels. The fossil fuel industry is one of the most powerful industries in the world and has an existential stake at COP22. They are also the party that has a huge role to play in workers’ welfare.

At the “Fossil fuel supply and climate policy: Key steps to enhance ambition” side event jointly organised by Stockholm Environment Institute, Overseas Development Institute and Oil Change International, the speakers brought to light important research in the field of fossil fuels. They all stressed the importance of immediate action aimed at reducing carbon intensive lifestyles. It was stressed that if efforts are not made now, the world will lock in an even more heavily carbon intensive lifestyle thereby implying that the death of fossil fuels is certain. There is no greening of fossil fuel but only a complete phase out that will affect any change for climate.

Combustion of coal from federal lands accounts for more than 57 percent of all emissions from fossil-fuel production on federal lands. The Obama administration earlier this year ordered a moratorium on new leases for coal mined from federal lands which was heavily criticized by the fossil fuel industry and the Republicans. Expectedly this moratorium will be removed by the new administration.  China also placed a moratorium which most of the analysts believe is due to noncompetitive nature of coal than climate change.

Greg Muttitt, Senior Campaign Advisor, Oil Change International said that it’s necessary to affect a managed decline of fossil fuel which must be complemented by rapid increase in renewable energy production.  What wasn’t discussed was the need to reduce consumption as well. Behavioral change is the toughest to effect but forms an important component for responsible energy use. The Indian pavilion at COP22 can be credited to bring the theme of sustainable lifestyle to the fore. Indian Minister of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, Mr. Anil Madhav Dave opined that it’s important to adopt sustainable practices to battle climate change. In another side event organized by India, stress was placed on the importance of education that has a transformative role to play for climate action. Education, formal and informal will form the bedrock of informed choices that consumers will have to take to tackle climate change.

As discussed above, the need is to implement several measures simultaneously at the individual, national and international level to combat this catastrophe. At this point it is crucial to reiterate the need for a just transition because there will be winners and losers and inclusivity demands that nobody is left behind! Transition must take place without crippling development. Brian Kohler, Director for sustainability, Industrial Global Union spoke about the areas to be addressed for just transition from the perspective of workers with a focus on sustainable industrial policy, social protection and labor adjustments.

The road ahead requires robust data on vulnerable workers disaggregated by gender, age, skillsets, personal needs and requirements and education that would prove useful. Important questions need to be posed and answered like what kind of training and education do the workers need to undergo? How will they be trained? Is there chance of displacement? Would just transition conditions delay climate action? How would fossil fuel industry transition? A transitionary program  needs to be implemented to provide the workforce with education, skills, finance and whatever help they need in the interim. Lessons from the reconstruction of Germany after the fall of the Berlin wall could be the starting point of research for a sustainable future for everyone.

And finally addressing the question of whether the fossil fuel interests should be at the heart of the discussion of their future at COP22. In the past fossil fuel interests have lobbied heavily against any productive action against climate action and has also funded researchers and think tanks to come up with a counter discourse. But would that apprehension be enough to cut them off from the discussion? Important lessons were learned when the tobacco industry lobbied against WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). The lesson was in the form of Article 5.3 of this Convention that recognized the conflicting interest with tobacco industry and thereby limited its engagement and influence. This Article also prohibited accepting any funds from the tobacco industry. There are a number of opinions online which advocate similar provisions under UNFCCC for the same purpose. Last year, outrage was expressed at COP21 being financed by heavy polluters but the justification was need based as green companies did not have enough capital to fund the conference.

There are conflicting opinions shared by governments and civil societies about their inclusion in the negotiations for reasons of conflict of interest and on the other side openness and transparency.  World Coal Association and many coal oil and gas industries ride the backs of Business Associations and Council to get an entry to many negotiations. Currently their observer status batch does not allow them to attend most of the sensitive negotiations but is that an effective check on the power of these lobbies? Sovereign states are well within their rights to make them a part of their party delegation that gets them access to all negotiations. Saudi Aramco is heavily represented in the Saudi Arabia delegation. Therefore, only time will tell how much cooperation or disruption they cause.

Considering we need a dialogue with all stakeholders to craft solutions for the future, it is important that we refrain from forming an echo chamber where fossil fuel industry is not included. This may prevent them from lobbying to get their way with governments in clandestine way.


Julio Rivera Alejo

JuanAt The Fletcher School I am concentrating in international energy and environmental policy with a special focus on climate policy. Before Fletcher I worked for Sustainlabour, an international foundation that works with trade unions all around the world in sustainable development issues. As part of this work I actively participated at COP20 in Lima, the round of negotiations that laid the foundation for the Paris Agreement next year at COP21. At COP20 we mobilize and worked with Peruvian’s trade unions to take a leading role amongst civil society actors participating at the negotiations in Lima.

During last summer, I worked as an intern for the United Nations Global Compact’s Climate Team in New York. The UN Global Compact climate team closely works with businesses all over the world helping them to take climate action. Today I keep collaborating with them through my Capstone Project at Fletcher. I am producing for them a research paper on the role of the private sector in the implementation of the Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) submitted by the countries in the context of the Paris Agreement.

In this regard, attending COP 22 has constituted a great opportunity for advancing my research. More than closely following the actual negotiations, I was more interested in attending different side events addressing the link between non-state actors climate actions and the NDCs and the Paris Agreement. The presentations by different experts in the field at these side events provided me with insightful and valuable information and direction for my research.  Furthermore, my attending the conference granted me the opportunity to personally interview some of these experts. Interestingly, one of the persons that I ended up interviewing and whose contribution was most valuable for my research was not among my initially targeted experts. I met her by total chance at one of the events I was attending. She was in the public, like me, and I noticed her when she asked a question during the Q&A directly related with my research, a question that I was going to ask!

As for the actual negotiations, COP22 is about implementing the Paris Agreement. Carbon accounting, financing and the facilitative mechanism will be the main issues this. However, more than analyzing the negotiations in detail, I would like to focus on the Global Climate Action Agenda. Previously, COPs have eminently been an intergovernmental process with non-state actors playing an essential observer role. But in Lima, the Global Climate Action Agenda was launched (back then it was known as the Lima-Paris Action Agenda), which main goal was to empower non-state actors as a key player in climate action. At COP22 we can see how the Global Climate Action Agenda has flourished, where many non-state actors attending the conference and presenting their commitments and showing their commitment towards climate action. Personally, seeing this makes me very optimistic about the Paris Agreement. Signed and ratified, it is time for implementation, and non-state actors (cities, businesses, regions, civil society) have a key role to play here.

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It isn’t that I love only the U.S. Thanksgiving holiday.  I love the lead-up to it, too.  From the weekend onward, folks can be seen pulling suitcases along the sidewalk on their way to somewhere.  Chatter about the weather gives way to questions about Thanksgiving plans.  Newspapers dedicate space to discussion of how to put together a complicated meal, for those who only do so once each year.

Turkey2Each year before Thanksgiving, I like to pause and thank Admissions Blog readers for giving me a forum to talk about my favorite holiday, as well as more admissions-relevant topics.  I never forget that the decision to attend graduate school is one that our students take seriously and make only after much consideration.  I’m happy that I can play a small role in helping them with their decision making.

TurkeyEarlier this week, students set up a little crafts center and invited the community to make a hand turkey with a comment or wish on it.  Anyone who was in school in the U.S. for preschool or the early grades will recognize these.  Trace your hand and decorate the shape to look like a turkey.  Anyway, the turkey messages in the Hall of Flags were very sweet, as was the very idea of creating an activity that would be silly and fun — a quick distraction from all the academic deliverables that students are getting ready to produce in the roughly four weeks that remain of the semester.  The turkeys were put together on a “Wall of Gratitude,” positioned a short distance from the boxes collecting contributions for the Fletcher Food Drive.

PieSpeaking of deliverables, my task for today is to bake bake bake.  My objective is roughly the same as it was a few years back when I took this photo.  Add an apple pie and swap out a cranberry pie for cranberry ginger cake, and I think that should do it.  We’ll have 14 folks (including a recent Fletcher grad) and one baby over for dinner tomorrow.  And then 17 on Friday!  I won’t need to worry about eating leftovers after that.

Wishing all our readers a happy Thanksgiving, with good food and friends or family!

(The Admissions Office will be closed tomorrow and Friday.  We’ll be back Monday morning, as usual.)

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