I had an idea last year but didn’t quite succeed in implementing it.  One major tweak later, I’m happy to write that I will soon start an occasional series of reports from members of the Class of 2014 on their life after Fletcher.  Unlike my (lack of) strategy for the Class of 2013, which resulted in only three posts, last April I snagged volunteer writers before they could leave campus.  Most have given me a date by which I can expect to hear from them, and I look forward to sharing these stories from our newest graduates about their move back into the working world and how they have applied their Fletcher educations.

The first report from First-Year Alumni will appear in the Blog tomorrow.

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The Fletcher community recently learned of the death of Alfred Rubin, a retired professor who taught here for many years.  One of Prof. Rubin’s former students, Duncan Hollis, F95, who happens to be a professor himself now, made us aware of a lovely tribute he wrote for Opinio Juris, a blog dedicated to discussion of international law.  He, and the Opinio Juris editorial board, kindly allowed me to reproduce his thoughts on the Admissions Blog.  I hope you find his comments as touching as I did.

Alfred P. Rubin: The Best Professor I Ever Had

by Duncan Hollis

For those of us fortunate enough to end up with a career in international law, we all have our mentors, our guiding lights.  Mine was Professor Alfred P. Rubin of the Fletcher School.  He died last week.  I write to express my condolences to his family and friends and offer a few words on his influence on my life as well as the whole Fletcher community, where he taught for 30 years.  Simply put, I would not be an international lawyer — let alone a professor of international law — had Professor Rubin not pushed, encouraged, and inspired me onto my current path.  He was the best professor I ever saw grace a classroom.

Truth be told, when I arrived at Fletcher in the Fall of 1993, I had no expectations of a career in international law.  I had enjoyed studying it as an undergraduate at Bowdoin with Allen Springer (a former student of Professor Rubin as it turned out).  But I’d applied to Fletcher to study Japan, not law; I had four years of Japanese language classes under my belt and had just finished a summer internship in Osaka.  To complete my joint degree, however, I still needed four law-related courses. LAW 200: The International Legal Order looked interesting.  I was a bit wary of an early morning class 3 days a week, including Fridays, plus an unusual year-long course structure. Still, Rubin’s classes were legendary so I decided to take it during my first semester.

In what was a trademark for his contrarian demeanor, Professor Rubin started off our first class with a simple, but powerful, challenge — insisting that there is no such thing as human rights.  An Australian classmate took the bait, and responded that they must exist, to which Professor Rubin pushed back, asking if human rights existed as law or morality.  That generated a fairly intense discussion on what law “is”, who should decide the law’s contents and by what processes.  Fifty minutes later, I was hooked.  LAW 200 became my favorite class. I would actually wake up happy on class days, eager to see what the morning’s discussion might hold — the Trent Affair’s illumination of customary international law, the divine law origins of treaties (which I’ve made use of subsequently), or one of my favorite casesMortensen v. Peters. We wrestled with the (in)consistency of the ICJ’s approach to the South Africa question, the meaning of “genuine and effective links” for citizenship, plus older chestnuts like the Lotus case. Along the way, Professor Rubin moved us beyond doctrine to legal theory, asking us to work through various iterations of positivist and naturalist methods in original and neo-formulations.  We didn’t just read Hart, we went back to Kelsen (reading Kelsen being fairly atypical in American legal education).

The Spring semester brought piracy and thornier topics like recognition, succession, jurisdiction, and conflicts of law.  A few years later, Monroe Leigh (who along with Cynthia Lichtenstein were my other early mentors) took me on as his associate in part because I’d invoked the Fruehauf case from Rubin’s class to advise a client.  As the semester progressed, my classmates and I debated whether Professor Rubin’s tears in discussing the legality of the bombing of Hiroshima were real (they were) and marveled at how he cared about the “law” as a concept and detested hypocrisy in any form.  None of us will ever forget how Rubin ended the year — re-enacting the scene from A Man for All Seasons where Sir Thomas More responds to William Roper’s call for an arrest even if it means cutting a road through the law to get after the Devil:

Oh? And when the last law was down, and the Devil turned ’round on you, where would you hide, the laws all being flat? This country is planted thick with laws, from coast to coast, And if you cut them down, do you really think you could stand upright in the winds that would blow then? Yes, I’d give the Devil benefit of law, for my own safety’s sake!

Two decades later, I’m still trying to figure out Professor Rubin’s secret ingredient — the persistent Socratic dialogues, the deep dives into doctrine, the marshaling of legal theory in concrete cases, or that undeniable passion for his subject-matter. It may have been something as simple as his gentle voice — a slight hesitancy in speech with an ever-present inquisitive tone.  I confess that my study group spent hours imitating that voice (one of us who shall remain nameless with much success).  We did so without any sense of hostility or meanness — but rather as a mark of our affection for his teaching and our sense that his class was a shared experience.  And it was not by any means an easy one — the reading assignments were enormous with Rubin assuming we all knew the material so we could take the class discussion to a more critical level. I still have my notes (the only ones that I’ve kept). I was amazed to revisit them yesterday to see just how much we covered that year in history, doctrine and theory.  I’ve never had another class like it.

Beyond the classroom, Professor Rubin was a thoughtful adviser.  Conveniently located on the way to the cafeteria, his office door was always open.   He welcomed students in to ask questions about class or the oft-discussed career question — “So, exactly, how does one become an international lawyer?”  He never rushed students off (even if we’d interrupted one of his many Minesweeper computer games). I treasured those conversations, and the chance to soak in his knowledge, his experience, and his many, many books. I have a shelf-long collection of green volumes of the American Journal of International Law in my office today for no other reason than Rubin had one.  In later semesters our conversations deepened and I gained insights into key sources and research methods.  To this day, I’m reluctant to cite a secondary source when a primary one is at hand since I picture Professor Rubin watching over me and shaking his head, reminding me he expects nothing less.

I will always be most indebted to Professor Rubin for his willingness to go beyond advice to action. In the summer of 1994 I was (unhappily) a temporary secretary in Suffolk University’s physical plant. The job was in the sub-basement below the actual basement.  It was hard to see how this was going to advance my dreams of becoming an international lawyer until I got a call from Jeffrey Bates, a partner at Goodwin Proctor at the time.  Another former student of Rubin’s, he needed a legal clerk to do some research, and Professor Rubin had recommended me. Overnight, I transferred onto a large and intensive research project that laid the foundations for all that followed.  I have no doubts that the Goodwin clerkship made it possible for me to join Steptoe and Johnson as an associate, which in turn led me to the State Department, and eventually Temple Law.  All this from one recommendation by Professor Rubin (a recommendation I’d not even asked him to make).  Nor am I alone in this experience.  Generations of Fletcher students sought out the Rubin experience and found themselves entering the field of international law in one way or another. From that introductory class alone, four of us spent time in the Legal Adviser’s office at the U.S. Department of State; others ended up at the United Nations, in foreign ministries, and private practice.  At least three of us followed his path into the academy to teach international law.

Having been a member of international law’s “invisible college” for a few years, I know that Professor Rubin was regarded by other law professors as an academic, known for his work on piracy and unilateral declarations, and some ferocious commentary from the floor at the American Society’s Annual Meeting.  For my part, however, I choose to remember Professor Rubin as a teacher.  In later years, we kept in touch until his health began to fail.  He’d ask me to call him by his first name, Al.  I couldn’t do it.  He was and will always be my professor of international law.  A gentleman, a scholar, but above all a teacher.  May he rest in peace.

 

PhD applicants:  You’re part of a small subset of our total group of applicants, but you certainly have the most complex application!  Last week, our student interns were taking questions daily about the finer point of the process, but many questions revolved around the dissertation proposal requirement.  Yes, we know that a formal dissertation proposal is often a post-coursework requirement in other PhD programs.  In fact, that’s the case here, too.  So what are we looking for in the proposal that should accompany your application?  Well, let’s start with the instructions.

PhD Proposal (1,500 words maximum, single-spaced, Arial 12 point font)
Your PhD Proposal should include:

  • A title
  • A researchable topic: what question do you propose to study and what evidence are you bringing to bear?
  • A brief overview of the literature of the field
  • A short description of the proposed methodology for research: how does your research question fit into the existing body of scholarship?  How do you propose to answer your research question? What methodologies do you propose to use?

The purpose of this preliminary proposal is to ensure there is a good match between the applicant’s interests and the expertise among the faculty at Fletcher.  It’s expected that your interests will be refined as you complete classes for the program, but it’s also expected that the subject of your research focus will remain essentially the same.

The other most-often-asked question regards the master’s thesis.  Again, let’s turn to the instructions:

MA Thesis or a writing sample of approximately 40 pages (in English)
Please upload a copy of your thesis to the online application.  If your master’s program did not require the writing of a thesis, you can provide a substantial writing sample as a substitute, so long as you are the sole author.

There are two reasons behind this requirement.  First, all Fletcher PhD students must complete a master’s thesis.  If they haven’t done so in their master’s degree program, they need to write one while at Fletcher.  Second, and more important for admissions purposes, the faculty on the PhD Admissions Committee want to see that you can make an argument and follow it through — the kind of research and writing work that you will need to do as a student here.  As the instructions note, you can submit another research paper, but you’ll want to be sure that it’s a good representative sample of your best work.  Often we’re asked whether a shorter paper will do the trick.  Well, um, I guess…but do you want to be judged on the basis of a ten-page paper when everyone else is presenting 50 pages?  Give it some thought and then try to find the best possible example of your writing.

Our online application system tells me that dozens of PhD applicants are in the process of completing their applications.  With five days leading to the December 20 deadline, I hope these notes will be helpful for those who are wrapping up their materials.

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Here’s some news from the Fares Center for Eastern Mediterranean Studies, a Fletcher research center.  The center has a new director, Nadim Shehadi, and here’s what we learned about him in the announcement of his appointment:

For the past 30 years, Nadim Shehadi has been involved in directing and organizing research activities, both academic and policy oriented, principally at St. Antony’s College Oxford where he was director of the Center for Lebanese Studies and as an Associate in the Middle East Program at Chatham House, the Royal Institute of International Affairs.

He has extensive experience working in the Middle East and North Africa including Lebanon, Syria, the Palestinian Authority, Jordan, and Libya.  He has advised EU governments, European Institutions, and international donors in drafting foreign policy and assistance strategies for the Middle East and North Africa.  He has been a visiting fellow at the Aspen Institute in Washington, DC and also at the Fares Center in the spring of 2012.

Shehadi is frequently in the media, has written for publications such as The New York Times and The Guardian, and has a number of publications and edited books.  He speaks French and Arabic and holds a bachelor’s degree in political economy from the University of Kent and a master’s degree in development economics from the University of Leicester.

This is especially good news, in that it follows an extended search.  Sounds like the wait yielded a new director who will bring much policy and academic experience to the Fares Center.

 

Fall semester classes wrap up today.  It already seems quieter in the building than a few days ago.  Tomorrow and Thursday are “reading days,” and exams run from Friday through next Thursday.  But we don’t fool ourselves — students will start peeling away from campus as soon as this weekend, and next week we’ll be seeing a tired-looking skeleton crew of a student community.  That’s not to say that everyone who leaves campus before the final day of final exams has actually submitted all necessary assignments; students have the option of completing research papers or take-home exams from the comfort of their home country, family’s living room, or vacation destination.

This semester has blazed by!  It doesn’t seem like three months have passed since the summer, when the staff was last toiling away in a quiet building.  But students will be back in a month, and they’ve earned their break.  We’ll just need to look forward to their return.

 

This fall’s alumni newsletter is filled with terrific information about the broader Fletcher community, including students, faculty, recent graduates, and alumni from across the decades.  It provides a great picture of the perspectives that Fletcher folk bring to international issues.  I hope you’ll check it out!

 

The first Friday in December is a big day around the Admissions Office.  It’s when we kick off the year’s discussion of applications with our first Admissions Committee meeting.  And that’s where I’ll be going in just a few minutes.

Early Notification applicants may want to know what’s happening around here.  You just learned that we’ll be discussing some of your applications today.  In addition, I’ll add that nearly every complete application has already been read by two Committee members.  We’ll be finishing those last applications in the next few days.  Then we begin the extended period of making final decisions and notifying applicants.  For the EN round, students may be admitted, or we may defer consideration of an application to the spring.  In a few cases, we’ll notify applicants that they have not been admitted to Fletcher; we hope that learning this in December helps them make decisions on which other graduate schools to apply to in January.

And so, coffee mug in hand, I’m off to the first meeting of the year!

 

First-year MIB student, Nathalie (who has also conducted interviews for us — you may have met her!) offered to report on the recent career trip students took to New York City.  Here’s the story:

Traditionally the Fletcher School student body goes on two career trips each year: to New York in January and then to Washington, DC a month later.  These trips are renowned by students for the career opportunities they provide, and are also considered a no-miss event on the Fletcher social calendar.  As the number of students interested in the intersection of the private and public sector grows, a need was identified to organize an additional career trip earlier in the academic year to meet the recruitment deadlines of some of the larger private sector companies.  The International Business Club rose to the challenge and organized the student-run Private Sector NYC Career Trip in November.  As one of the Club’s leadership team members — and coming to Fletcher this year with five years of work experience in the private sector — I wanted to share some of my impressions both of the day itself and the preparations leading up to the day.

We had begun our internship and job search preparation already with our first Professional Development Program (PDP) class during Orientation week.  PDP continued through the first half of fall semester, with Friday mornings dedicated to refining our résumés, elevator pitches, and cover letters.  This all felt very premature to me — I thought “I’ve just left my job.  I’m planning on staying here for two years.  What am I doing this for?!” — but after seeing that deadlines for consulting internships began in the fall, I quickly changed my tune.  The New York Career Trip helped jump-start my internship preparation, and made sure I was 100 percent ready with an up-to-date CV and a great elevator pitch.  The team leaders for each of the company visits were also very helpful, as they ensured participants were prepared for each meeting.  (When trying to make a good impression to a potential employer, there can be such thing as a stupid question.…)

NY tripIn total 81 students made the trip down I-95, visiting between us a total of 21 companies in one day!  The companies ranged from Morgan Stanley to Major League Soccer, from Google to the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, and from Dalberg to Eurasia.  I personally visited LRN, Monitor Deloitte, and Dalberg.  Two of these sessions were hosted by Fletcher alums who were very helpful in their advice on finding a job in the private sector.  They both recommended taking Corporate Finance at Fletcher, definitely making the many hours I am spending on the coursework now worth it!  The other session was a more formal recruiting session; managers presented their company’s structure and projects, generating a lot of excitement about applying to their firm.  The day was topped off with an Alumni Happy Hour, with NYC-based alums coming to meet and network with us.  And then, as a true Fletcher student who is never one to miss the opportunity to explore, the rest of the weekend was spent with a group of my classmates discovering new parts of New York.

Overall, the trip was a resounding success, with lots of great feedback from students and alumni alike.  Personally, it was a welcome opportunity to get the ball rolling on my internship search and it has motivated me to keep the momentum going, as some of the January deadlines are quickly approaching.  The trip also showed me how students can really take an active role in the community at Fletcher, and are encouraged to do so.  I was able to make direct connections with alumni and other interested employers, something not so typical in larger business programs — another Fletcher bonus to add to the already long list!

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Fawaz bookLast spring, blog readers met Leila Fawaz through her Faculty Spotlight feature.  Today I wanted to bring your attention to a Tufts Now story about her new book, A Land of Aching Hearts: The Middle East in the Great War.

 

Completing the round of posts from our returning student bloggers, Mark looks back at his first year at Fletcher from his second-year vantage point.

Mark Attia 1I recall that when I arrived on campus last fall to begin the MIB program, I observed our second-year brethren interacting in the halls after returning from summer.  Like long-lost siblings reunited, not a twosome could pass each other without a hearty embrace.  Equally memorable was learning of all the impressive and often exotic ways the MIB’s had spent their summer.  But what was even more inspiring to me was the certainty with which second-years assured us that we, too, are embarking on what promised to be a spectacular year.  They were right.  Our first year has since passed in a blink, and I, for one, learned first-hand what was behind all that enthusiasm.

I last wrote in the spring on how I was developing my own area of expertise by tailoring coursework to specific academic and professional goals.  I was focused on learning about international project and infrastructure finance, and looking for an opportunity to break into the field.  Thanks exclusively to the Fletcher network, I landed a position with OPIC, the Overseas Private Investment Corporation, which was, without exaggeration, exactly what I was aiming for.  OPIC is the U.S. Government’s development finance institution, and it offers a range of products designed to help U.S. firms invest in emerging markets.  OPIC also plays a meaningful role in advancing foreign policy goals in a way that I characterized as “fostering peace, through superior debt financing,” which is my own commentary on how militarism has been eclipsed by more subtle measures of economic statecraft and leverage.

I joined the Structured Finance division, where my team and I worked on loans for large and complex multi-party projects, including a wind farm in Pakistan, a concentrated solar power plant in Israel, and a social-impact-oriented housing finance facility in Haiti — projects that cost over one billion dollars together.  My responsibilities included credit analysis, due diligence, research on foreign regulations, economic assessments, and interpreting elaborate concession and loan agreements; all tasks that required me to draw on my training outlined in my earlier post on a daily basis.  But what arguably proved to be most invaluable was a broad and nuanced understanding of the global context in which I was operating, enabling me to offer authentic perspectives on matters with an insight that only Fletcher can provide.

The experience convinced me that, in purely commercial terms, the MIB program equipped me with precisely the right set of skills and body of knowledge to excel in an internationally focused financial career that was otherwise entirely new to me, and it was Fletcher that made the opportunity possible.  But the value Fletcher creates for us does not stop there.  In my case, I have participated in the Building Bridges Symposium to learn from the industry’s foremost thought leaders, and have been provided connections to many astonishing alumni in the field, including international banker John Greenwood (F04), prolific builder Philip Asherman (F04), and pioneer Mimi Alemayehou (F98).  These are just a fraction of the resources available to us, all part of a brilliantly executed mission to prepare future leaders for the global stage and illuminate a path forward.

Returning to campus this fall, I was greeted in the hallway by our dean, James Stavridis (F83, F84 and the former Supreme Allied Commander of NATO, mind you), who inquired about my summer with equal fascination as a parent.  The moment was striking, and reinforced a sentiment solidifying in my mind since I first witnessed those second-year classmates interact.  There is an unmistakable culture that resonates throughout Fletcher, a kind of kinship that binds not only students together, but also us to our faculty, to our staff, and to our alumni.  In my view, our culture is the real prize, the engine of enduring value, and an honor to be a part of.  Like my classmates before me, I know first-years will discover their untapped potential, see locked doors swing open, and become a part of the Fletcher family, as I have; and all after merely one year.

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